Article 370: repeal and implications

Yasmeen Aftab Ali

ArticleYAAOne of the first steps BJP is doing after Modi’s swearing in ceremony (if you ignore telling off given to PM Nawaz that India expected steps by the latter taken against “terrorist groups.”) is to move to repealing of Article 370 of the Constitution of India that grants special autonomous status to Jammu and Kashmir. Coming on heels of two unsavory incidents; not a very auspicious beginning. First. reported a day before Modi’s swearing in was the news of a protest by Rashtriya Hindu Andolan; a Hindutva group to ban Fajr Azaan Sanatan Sanstha activist Vijayalakshmi made a great hue and cry that India grants equal religious freedom to all however, this must not mean into followers of one religion disturbing the peace of the followers of other religions. Sleep is important. Duh!

In yet another incident, Hindus and Muslims clashed a day ahead of Modi’s swearing in at Ahmedabad; known as the heartland of Gujrat; Modi’s home town. A car accident of members between Muslim and Hindu communities led to an argument. More community members joined in. Altercation led to destruction. Ensuing fire destroyed three shops, one mini-bus and a couple of two-wheelers were burnt.

In a rewind; news report by Times of India, the headline screams, ‘Top cop says Gujarat CM Narendra Modi involved in Godhra case.’ The stunning report states and I share excerpts, “Senior IPS officer Sanjeev Bhatt, who was posted in the Intelligence Department, has filed an affidavit in the Supreme Court accusing Gujarat chief minister Narendra Modi of complicity in the 2002 Godhra case. Bhatt in his affidavit states that he was that he attended a meeting held at the chief minister’s residence on February 27, 2002.  Stating that the senior police officials had blindly followed Modis instructions in 2002, the officer in his affidavit further stated that this was responsible for the deterioration in the law and order situation in the state….. Bhatt has also made a request to the apex court to provide protection to him and his family. …Following the Godhra train burning incident, widespread communal riots broke out in various parts of Gujarat in which over 1,000 people, mostly from the minority community, were killed.” (Published Apr 22, 2011)

The purpose of giving the brief run down here is obvious. Modi carries a heavy Hindutva baggage. Commenting upon the huge electoral win in my op-ed published on MAY 19, 2014, I quoted Varghese K George, “The BJP had put its hardcore Hindutva agenda on the backburner when it began alliance building in 1996, but with absolute numbers on its side, the demand from within to bring these up may rise”. (The Hindu) Though Modi had assured the Indians against such an event happening let us not forget that was before the elections.”

I was not prepared though for being proved right so early in the day!

It is important to grasp what Article 370 is and its implications. Maharaja Hari Singh when acceded to India on 26 October 1947 “did not commit himself to accept any future Constitution of India. However, he reserved the right to enter into agreements with the Government of India under any future Constitution of India. The Instrument of Accession did not affect the continuance of the sovereignty of the Ruler in and over the State or the validity of any law in force in the State, save as provided by or under the Instrument of Accession.” (KASHMIR ARTICLE 370 by Mohan Krishen Teng) The said piece of legislation can only be revoked by the Constituent Assembly of Jammu and Kashmir so recommends.

The reason for maintaining the sub-nationality for Jammu and Kashmir was self-evident; the fear of being ruled by Hindu majority India whereas Jammu and Kashmir was and is pre-dominantly Muslim.

The constitutional provisions envisaged by Article 370 of the Constitution of India and the subsequent Constitution (application to Jammu and Kashmir) Orders, promulgated by the President of India, provide for a partial application of the Constitution of India to the Jammu and Kashmir State. In their application to Jammu and Kashmir, the provisions of the Constitution of India fall into three categories:

· Provisions, which are not applicable to the Jammu and Kashmir State;

· Provisions, which are applicable to the Jammu and Kashmir State; and

· Provisions, which are applicable to the State with exceptions and reservations.

(KASHMIR ARTICLE 370 by Mohan Krishen Teng)

Those who support Modi’s move to repeal Article 370 ask questions like if it’s not really intact does it really make a difference if it’s legally changed? Yes Sirs it does make a difference. Changing the basic structure of the State changes the legal standing of its subjects. Make no mistake about it. According to Amitabh Mattoo, “…at the opposition conclave in Srinagar in 1982, leaders of virtually all national parties, including past and present allies of the BJP, declared that the “special constitutional status of J&K under Article 370 should be preserved and protected in letter and spirit.” (Published ‘The Hindu’ December 6, 2013)

Quoting from Sameer Yasir’s piece, ‘Kashmir’s special status is a political tinderbox’, “So it’s not surprising that Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir Omar Abdullah reacted swiftly, warning the newly elected government that any attempt to revoke the special status to Jammu and Kashmir (read Article 370), could break the relationship between the state and the Union of India. “Mark my words and save this tweet-long after Modi Government is a distant memory either J&K won’t be part of India or Article 370 will still exist,” Omar tweeted in his response to Singh’s statement. Omar said Article 370 was the “only constitutional link” between Jammu and Kashmir and rest of India, a stand many senior Kashmir scholars and historians concur with.” (Published May 28, 2014)

The emerging posture of the above stated steps/events are a far cry from what Modi’s government SHOULD be focusing on: strengthening of India’s economy. A little too early in the day to pass a judgment, nonetheless, the direction in which waters seem to be flowing mark the path of a familiar religious based policy- which is a huge tragedy and a loss for India, using of  bullying tactics rather than to genuinely emerge as a leader in the region. A golden opportunity being thrown away.  India is at the right time, at the place in history. Such an approach however will ensure India loses the advantage!

The message being conveyed to the Indian Muslims, Indian Hindus and other religious groups residing in India by trying the over flexing of muscles is clear: Hindutva reigns supreme. This in turn will create extreme discomfort amongst other countries of the religion. No one wants a pushing, power hungry, religious driven neighbor. Or does anyone?

Professor Chetan Bhatt from the London School of Economics writing for ‘Outlook’ says, “Narendra Modi has managed to convert a few modest achievements in Gujarat into a shiny spectacle. A recent, gruesome history is erased by a fanatical cult of personality; in speaking about himself in the third person, Modi appears to be his most loyal fan. Chillingly, some Gujaratis in the UK and India are consciously indifferent to the deaths, rapes and brutalities in 2002. For them, they are a necessary outcome of the Hindutva revenge against history that Amit Shah, Pravin Togadia, Giriraj Singh and others have invoked recently— and the fact that they have, shows a characteristic division of labour with Modi speaking about something he calls ‘development’ while the hate speech is left to others.


Many liberals have concerns about Modi’s political discourse and style, since he knows no other world than that of the RSS and its parivar (indeed, one wonders what he might say in a discussion about the US debt ceiling, the Syria conflict or the Ukraine crisis.)”

Professor Bhatt I hear you loud and clear!

Whither Secular India?

The writer is a lawyer, academic and political analyst. She has authored a book titled ‘A Comparative Analysis of Media & Media Laws in Pakistan.’ She can be contacted at: and tweets at @yasmeen_9


Cross post from PAKISTAN TOPDAY published 3rd June 2014.




You can read: ‘The Pakistan  Coup detat of  1958: Part I on by clicking the link:

You can read: ‘The Pakistan  Coup detat of  1958: Part II on by clicking the link:

You can read: ‘The Pakistan  Coup detat of  1958: Part IV by clicking the link:

You can read: ‘The Pakistan  Coup detat of  1958: Part V by clicking the link:

Naveed Tajammal

Naveed PicLike the other two later dictators, who survived due to the Americans, interests in our region, the luck of Ayub Khan too changed as the need by the Americans arose to put him on the saddle, on 4th of Oct 1957,the Soviet union had launched its first satellite, ‘Sputnik’, and followed it with yet another on 3rd November-1957.A new frontier was born and the soviets were regarded world over as the first to have entered it-The reaction in USA was sheer panic, after the first American satellite, exploded on the launch pad-U.S prestige hit the rock bottom. It was the ‘Sputnik Crisis’ which led to the creation of NASA by USA and it was the start point of the ‘Space Race’ A term coined by the US president, Eisenhower .This phobia reached the climax starting 1958-When ‘Khrushchev, declared that U.S.S.R was about launch, ‘Intercontinental ballistic missiles'[ICBM]and produce them like ‘Sausages’, the result of this Soviet bravado was that amongst the American’s -a strong perception grew ,that, if U.S.S.R won the race in ICBM they would gain a decisive military edge over USA-which led to a urgent need to step up the surveillance of Soviet missile sites-Suddenly Pakistan’s importance  as the next door neighbor with ideal location for Airbases-

The Government under Feroze khan noon was not willing to give these concessions to the Americans-Ayub Khan seeing it as a opportunity, took a trip to USA in April 1958 and sought an appointment with Director of CIA Allen Dules & General Twining [Air force Vice Chief of Staff] without the knowledge of Iskandar Mirza-To the Americans, Ayub khan showed his desire to take over and meet the American demands of setting up the CIA base for keeping an eye on the affairs in U.S.S.R. According to the book-”From Plessey to Pakistan’- by Humayun Mirza the son of Iskandar Mirza-”Ayub Khan after he took over on 28th Oct 1958-signed a 10 years lease agreement with the Americans for a base station at Badaber-Peshawar-so that U2 could fly from Lahore & Peshawar to spy on the Soviet Union.

This is further corroborated by Sultan Muhammad Khan[He was a former Army Officer of the British Indian Army & Commissioned during the war  in 4th Indian Grenadiers, saw action in Malaysia and Indonesia, joined Indian Political service in 1946 and opted for Pakistan Foreign Service in 1947-he was the Foreign Secretary between July 1971 to March 1972],He writes in his book’, ‘Memories & Reflections’1997.It was in May 1959 that he returned back to the F.O.and relates that, ‘A few days after I had rejoined the Foreign Office, I was given the final Draft of the Agreement by  USA and Pakistan on the Acquisition of Badaber by the USA for the establishment of a secret base [CIA station] for monitoring Soviet activities in the development of Atomic weapons. Sultan M. Khan observes that, ‘given the total dependence of Ayub Khan’s Government on the USA by then’ ‘the conclusion of such an agreement was not a surprise, but what was surprising was the ”Extra-Territorial Rights which Pakistan was Conceding to USA, at Badaber. Pakistanis were totally excluded from the operations there and could not enter the base without U.S approval”. Sultan, reading the text and terms, writes in his book, that he approached Manzoor Qadir who was the Foreign Minister, and requested for re-drafting of better terms for Pakistan-Manzoor Qadir said he was aware of the flaws but here the President and the Ministry of Defence had given full approval to all these terms, so I had better finalize it !

Ayub Khan really knew how to sell his country to extend his rule!! But he was not the only one, Air Marshal Asghar Khan remained the Favorite blue eyed from 1957 to 1965 and a American die-heart to the boot-Read his book ,”We’ve Learnt Nothing From History’ Oxford press-2005.He blames everybody under the sun,-But Not a word will you find on  Badaber in his book, my question is? was-it not related to the Air force Matters and the Peshawar Airbase was the transit point- no? Where was the Nationalist within him then?? He should have resigned, and exposed the designs of Ayub Khan-however, like all the rest of the minions’ he served his master[Ayub khan] and his mentor’s[Americans] to the best of his ability- Eight years of service as C IN C Air force, had its share of extensions- No ? and he beats Ayub in his[Ayub would have completed his 8 years on 17 Jan 1959]-I am sure Pakistan Air force had many officers to fill his shoes-had he put in his papers and said, yes I have done my Tenure let XYZ take on ? but then  would the new Air chief been a willing tool to coordinate with the Americans in the U2 project, since its inception and its related  teething problems ??

The main reason why Americans were dying to have a Spy station in Peshawar was that-the largest Soviet space launching facility was at Baikonur on the Syr Darya [river] south of Kazakhstan the distance between Islamabad and Astana the capital of Kazakhstan remains 1217 miles and Astana is to the north whereas Baikonur touches the southern border with Uzbekistan, and the range of a U2 was 6405 miles with a top speed of 500 MPH, flying at 70,000 plus feet.

Humayun Mirza referring to other declassified documents in his book-quotes American Ambassador at Karachi-M. Langley-with reference to Ayub Khan’s April 1958 Visit and request to see the CIA director-‘This is a story of the dreams of the Empire of two of the stronger men in Pakistan, President Mirza and General Ayub Khan, and something of their friendship and rivalry and their estimates of each other, It is a story developed in search of an answer why Ayub, who is being sent by his government to the U.S to plead the case of Pakistan for a gift of bombers, should seek an appointment with Allen Dulles[Director CIA] without the knowledge of Mirza”.

Alexander Symons the British High Commissioner in his DO/35/8943 dt-27th September 1958 to Sir Gilbert Laithwaite [ref :The British Papers’1958-1969′-states-”I would add by the way of comment that as far as the President’s ability to pull of a coup is concerned, there have been, as I mentioned in my letter of 23rd August, indications that his standing with the Army is not quite as high as it was. But he is obviously very confident and told me that both General Ayub,and General Umrao Khan the G.O.C East Pakistan, had been urging that Army intervention was essential. There is no real evidence that his claim that the Army would back him is unjustified. Now that he has started talking so frankly about his intentions (though he assured me that, besides myself, only the Army C in C  Ayub Khan and the Chief of Staff -Gen Musa knew what he had in mind)….”As events unfolded it was Iskandar Mirza who was being duped in a situation whereby he was being cajoled to take a course of action, what the three Ayub,Musa and Yahya wanted, and had planned to the last detail step by step, of course with the American guidance.

Iskandar Mirza had been so convinced by Ayub Khan and his group, as one gleans from these reports, in the ”ANNEX- A’ of the same letter [DO] quoted above, Symon states, ‘The President now believes that disaffection has spread to the middle ranks of the Army and unless effective action is taken soon they may take law into their own hands. He is satisfied that the Army would support him in a change such as he has in mind. He believes that to delay action will be fatal to the integrity of Pakistan. He is, therefore now considering how to bring about the conditions described above. He has not given any indication as regards timing.”

Now to link up all-in my first part I had given extracts from M. B. Khalid’s book- ‘ Khalid, further states that it was in early afternoon of 07 Oct 1958 that the personal servant [Abdul Sattar]of Iskander Mirza came with a urgent message for him and Nusrat- ud-din, as they both shared the same office that Sahibjee says that both of you be back in office by 5 pm as some urgent matters are in offing and need to be typed. Khalid adds that on reaching at 5 pm they both had tea and discussed normal issues and at around 6.30 pm walked in Major Gen. Sher Bhadaur with a brief case which he opened and started giving out drafts of the letters to be typed by both him and Nusrat[who was the Principle secretary of Iskander Mirza]and Gen. Sher Bhadaur sat on a chair not allowing any one to enter or receive any phone calls. To the extent that even carbon papers were supplied from his brief case. Meanwhile outside in the long corridor Iskander Mirza paced to and fro and chain-smoked and it was by 9.30 pm that typing ceased. The first paper was a proclamation’ in which the constitution stood abrogated National and Provincial Assemblies stood dissolved and the Cabinet dismissed. The second paper was the appointment of General Ayub Khan as the Chief Martial Law Administrator. The third paper dealt with personal messages to the vital Head of States. The Fourth was urgent Letters to Ambassadors of vital countries to visit on receipt of these letters immediately the President House [old Gov. Gen House].

About these letters being typed the drafts had been made-by DMO Brig S.G.M. Peerzada & VCGS Brig. Attique ur Rahman much earlier and vetted by CGS Maj Gen Yahya Khan and Chief of Staff Gen.Musa Khan, what General M.Attiqur Rahman has to say on this [ref; Back to Pavilion’-1989/] That in 1958-[keeping in view Ayub Khan was only given his third extension in June 1958,By Malik Feroze Khan Noon, and this time for just Two years]A future plan of action by the stake holders or a contingency plan for the Army to act upon, if a legal authority called upon it do so-was made-and Attiqur Rahman as the VCGS, Brig. S.G.M Peerzada DMO including Yahya Khan the CGS were involved in the making-Under the guide lines of General Ayub Khan-the plan was worked out on a ‘D’ Day basis-the key plan was a chronological order of actions that had to be taken-issue of instructions, movement of troops, organizations of HQ’s at Karachi, announcements that had to be made, speeches for the radio, security of key installations-A security plan had also been made for the movement of key personnel to Karachi and elsewhere under cover of normal conferences.

Unknown to Iskandar Mirza he was being cornered in this game of being guilty of abrogating the constitution and in the same stroke appointing Ayub khan as the chief martial law administrator thereby cutting off his own source of power-

As stated in the previous above Para-”The Fourth was urgent Letters to Ambassadors of vital countries to visit on receipt of these letters immediately the President House’ on this the British High Commissioner, states in his ‘Inward Telegram to the Commonwealth officer’ no 1680-Karachi 02.23 hours 08 Oct 1958-”when I went to see the President tonight I found my American, Iranian, Turkish, and Afghan colleagues were also present-the crux of this lengthy telegram was-[a]’ On the Administrative side-The president informed the audience that, the present system of justice and administration would continue, except when, Gen.Ayub in his capacity of as chief martial law administrator ordered to the contrary-Aziz Ahmad would be appointed as the Secretary- General of the central administration, and Ayub would operate through Chief commissioner in Karachi and Governor East Pakistan. The Tribal areas would continue to be under West Pakistan Administration.[b] on the subject of a New Constitution-Iskandar mirza had this to say -”  that the Armed forces would remain the ultimate sanction of the new administration and would continue till a new constitution was drawn up-From what Ayub had said, he and president expect this period will be fairly long one i.e 3 to 5 years. The President said that the new constitution would be based on democratic principles, but would not, provide adult franchise or female franchise. He favored a unitary form of government for Pakistan. He believed in one unit but that this would have to be considered when the new constitution was drawn.[c] General Ayub has issued a statement that he has taken over as Chief Martial Law Administrator.

In the next Telegram no.1688 dt.17.20 hours 9th Oct 1958,on the subject of post-coup situation.[Political Changes]a].The Army is firmly in saddle. Martial law regulations have been issued country wide, and for purpose of Administration of Martial Law, Pakistan has been divided into three divisions-Karachi under General.Sher Bahadur, West Pakistan under Gen. Azam and East Pakistan under Gen.. Umrao.[b] Ayub khan will act as the ‘de facto’ Prime Minister and under him will be Aziz Ahmed.[c] a de facto Cabinet of Federal Secretaries of all vital ministries will form the council, including three army generals.[d] The president and Ayub, relationship between two is an aspect to be watched very closely, at present President is the leader and Ayub frankly admits his inexperience and leans heavily on the president. But in reality Ayub as the supreme commander is in effective control of the armed forces which are regimes only sanction. Presently Ayub is finding his feet but when he does so and understands rather more clearly the power at his command and the opportunities before him, the strain on his loyalty to the President might be put to test, especially if two differed sharply on matters of importance.

Now we must watch the role of our Media in those days-according to the same British papers-being quoted above, vide DO 35/8943 dt-10th Oct 1958-in which the High Commissioner suggests to the common wealth officer to destroy all records which indicate prior knowledge of president Mirza’a Coup plan-”Wheeler who is a Daily Mail man, has been sent by BBC,he along with two American correspondents met President and Ayub at my initiative over tea yesterday. The local press is steadily climbing aboard the Bandwagon. Both ‘Dawn’ and the ‘Morning News’ today carry leading articles expressing strong support of the new regime. ‘Dawn’ goes so far as to say that there is ”No Need To Hurry’ the restoration of democratic forms of government…’.

But like it is said, ‘There are No permanent friends. Only permanent interests”. When the Time for exit of Iskandar Mirza came there was nobody to save him-as his own protégé [Ayub[ had turned hostile, in all the years from 1951 to 1958 Ayub had survived because of Iskandar, as all the extensions given to Ayub came with the concurrence of Iskandar- Had Ayub  not been given these three Extensions our History might have been different-and the Army much better led in 1965 and 1971 wars or maybe the wars would not have come-And Yahya Khan, later in 1969 did to Ayub what Ayub had done to Iskandar in 1958.

With all adoration given by sycophants to Ayub, seeing him the man in uniform and the Chief Martial Law Administrator and Ayub inwardly hard pressed to give the Americans the bases required for the Surveillance U2’s over U.S.S.R ,he was pressed for time, and as we see from days following 08 Oct 1958 he started showing his own mind-his ‘Innuendo’s countering Statements given by Iskandar were fast driving Iskandar up against the wall-Though Iskandar had played safe with appointing Aziz Ahmed as the Deputy Martial Law Administrator however Aziz Ahmed had no mettle within to stand against the Hawks at the back of Ayub Khan who had engineered and plotted the whole Coup to the last Details-covering all contingency plans-

On 19th October 1958- Ayub khan had invited Iskandar Mirza to a joint meeting which was also attended by the Chief Justice. M. Munir, under discussion was the subject of defining the respective powers of President and the Chief Martial Law Administrator. As Chief Justice Munir tried to build the argument  to establish a fact that the writ of Iskandar as the President over the CMLA,was still supreme. The Judge Advocate-General. Colonel Kazi-sitting next to Ayub intervened and gave the Military point of the view as they saw it-which was ‘Since the Abrogation of the Constitution on the night- 07/08 Oct 1958-the President had lost all the powers he enjoyed under the constitution, wherein  he had also willfully passed the baton to Ayub Khan, and as of now the CMLA was the sole lawful authority in the country-on this, the meeting came to an sudden end-a jubilant Ayub and a ashen Iskandar left the room.

On the 20th Oct 1958 Ayub left for a tour of East Pakistan-he was well received by the public and large crowds came to the hear him speak on the public forums, the Speeches of Ayub were projecting him alone as the Master and not a word about his Mentor was mentioned-Iskandar, hearing of these speeches, was seeing the writing on the wall and so he made desperate moves.

[To be continued…..]


The Pakistan Coup detat of 1958: Part IV

You can read: ‘The Pakistan  Coup detat of  1958: Part 1 on by clicking the link:

You can read: ‘The Pakistan  Coup detat of  1958: Part 11 on by clicking the link:

You can read: ‘The Pakistan  Coup detat of  1958: Part IV on by clicking the link:

Naveed PicNaveed Tajammal

March 1954 elections in East Pakistan came as a eye-opener for the gang. Ghulam Mohammad the bureaucrat turned politician turned tables on the united front-which had defeated the Muslim league in East Pakistan because the united front was planning to bring in changes in the new constitution-thereby the powers of Governor-General would be restricted, and subject to approval by the Prime Minister- this was done on 21 September 1954-however on 24 Oct 1954-Ghulam Mohammad had dissolved the Assembly and the same day-Mohammad Ali Bogra appointed a new Cabinet Hussain Shaheed Shurawardy of the united front of East Pakistan joined in the new cabinet-as did Iskandar Mirza and the C in C- Pakistan Army Ayub Khan who had technically no right legally to be doing so-It was on this occasion that the P.A of the Governor General -M.B. Khalid writes in his book-”Awan e Sadr mein Sola sal’ published 1988-pg-83/84; ”Ghulam Mohammad had proposed to Ayub Khan- that he could become the interim Prime Minister -provided he, within 90 days make a new constitution-and so a referendum could be held.” This offer Ayub Khan had declined.

Soon after Ghulam Mohammad fell sick and was totally bed ridden -In Aug 1955-Iskandar Mirza became the Acting Governor General-after the constitution of 1956 came in vogue in March -Iskander Mirza was elected unanimously as the First President of Pakistan.

Meanwhile having engineered himself as the Governor General-Iskandar Mirza and his gang now played the musical chair of Prime Ministers-First to go was Mohammad Ali Bogra-Followed by Chaudary Mohammad Ali, next was Hussain Shaheed Suhawardy who had outlasted his utility-Ibrahim Chandigarh lasted barely two months and last one was Feroze Khan Noon was dismissed on night 07/08 October 1958.

Should one read the memoirs of Feroze Khan Noon-‘From Memory’- finds that Feroze Khan as the Foreign Minister had the backing of Suhrawardy the Prime Minister and Iskandar Mirza, the president to follow a foreign policy which led to a conflict of interest with the Pro-American Ayub khan clique-As Feroze khan rightly states in his book ‘In Foreign policy it is the interests of of the country that are at stake, and not the party interests….I also felt that we must come nearer to U.S.S.R.[Russia].’ The other logic Feroze Khan Noon gives against too much reliance on American and Western Countries Aid since 1950’s and why the we should have had a tilt towards U.S.S.R was that, their focal point was to sell their old and new machinery and next came the technicians and erection and installation phases-who were mostly western or American and they took back a substantial portion of this AID in their salaries and other facilities which had to be created to lodge and board them. And the majority of these technicians who were sent here, according to Feroze khan noon, were those who were unable to make the grade in their own country-Here their personal comforts were given foremost priority the result was, that little Americas were created-with their refrigerators and air conditioners and imported homogenized foods -not to miss their  American Cars-And so Feroze khan quotes the example of Russian Technicians in the same period in Afghanistan-who would wear the same clothes as the public wore and lived amongst them-and so the emotional dividends.

The American pressure on Ayub Khan & Air Marshal Asghar Khan  to get things rolling was seen in the case of Badaber Air Base or the Peshawar Air Station- The civil Government was not suited to American Policies-It was after the removal of Feroze khan Noon that things really started rolling on this project-the end result was whose responsibility falls on  Air Marshal Asghar Khan who was the commander in Chief Air force and by the grace of  the American goodwill sat on this seat for 8 years July 1957-july 1965. He never once thought what the repercussions would be, or where lay our National policy-on the day Francis Gary power was shot down over U.S.S.R, and after the Soviets had established the origin of his flight-Nikita Khrushchev had called the Pakistani ambassador in Moscow and shown him the encircled in red on the wall map Peshawar City, and assured that Pakistan would suffer dire consequences if it continued such activities-

Should one read the book, ‘My Chief’ by Colonel Mohammad Ahmed-1960-who came in Ayub khans inner circle in 1948-after Ayub was made GOC East Pakistan, as his GSO-ll ,and after Ayub had been assigned his new appointment in 1950- Muhammad Ahmed was made the new Asst. Director Military Intelligence- and in 1955 became the Ayub khan and continued on the same post with Musa Khan. As per his narration Ayub khan was in the good books of Americans from the beginning, by 1953 he was heavily involved with Pentagon-and not only that he had developed good relations with Americans in all walks of life-politicians, economists, journalist. military leaders, diplomats and business magnets-and was in high favor with Admiral  Arthur W.Radford [1896-1973] who was the Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff from 1953-1957,and also with General Nathan Twining who remained Chief of staff of USA Air Force from 1953-1957 and was later Joint Chiefs of Staff-1957-1960-and do keep in mind that the Lockheed U2 Flights had started in 1955.[pages 66-76] Ayub khan keeping in view  the changing world geo-politics on the American side, had timely started convincing the Americans that he was their Man-and so his personal meetings with Secretary of State J.F. Dulles, the foreign aid chief, Harlod E. Stassen-and the American undersecretary General Walter Bedell Smith. In fact the whole team of General D. Eisenhower the 34th American president from 1953-1961.

Gen Gul Hassan is correct,[ref Memoirs]-pg 132/133….’ It is true that the grant of extensions to Ayub Khan had released additional undercurrents and the Rawalpindi Conspiracy Case was never forgotten, especially by Ayub Khan. In the widespread commotion, the possibility of a coup by a general in collusion with some of our rapacious and disillusioned politicians, could not be ruled out. This made sense, particularly when all our generals considered themselves eminently qualified to occupy the C IN C’s chair. In the circumstances, Ayub khan decided that enough was enough. He therefore began removing the potential threat within the army to consolidate his own position…in this process Ayub khan supplemented generals who were at best mediocrities. The new promotes were obviously selected for their tractable characteristics & in this weeding out operation the accumulated experience was lost” ,and so lastly Gen Gul Hassan quotes-Henry James-”Experience is never limited, and it is never complete; it is an immense sensibility, a kind of huge spider-web of the finest silken threads suspended in the chamber of consciousness, and catching every air-borne particle in its tissue”.

According to Gen.Gul Hassan [pg127] ”Thanks to the U.S Military aid which began to flow into the country in 1954,we were able to replace some of the obsolete equipment but it was a painful and gradual turnover, Neither was the quantity as awesome as made out by our implacable neighbour, nor indeed the quality, For example, we received jeeps, which had aged in the Korean War and were supposed to have been reconditioned-The only reconditioning in some cases was a fresh coat of paint-The M 24 light tanks were well past their prime. When I attended a course at Fort Knox in early 1955,these tanks could only be located in the Museums. Likewise the Patton tanks [M 47’s],though of later vintage, they appeared far more menacing when arrayed in our tank parks than when taken out on exercises, where breakdowns were not infrequent, and finally the spare parts and practice ammunition were handed out in a niggardly fashion….”

It seems Ayub Khan had already decided to take over in 1958-as probably his mentors had told him so-which is evident if you read, what General M.Attiqur Rahman has to say on this [ref; Back to Pavilion’-1989/] That in 1958-[keeping in view Ayub Khan was only given his third extension in June 1958,By Malik Feroze Khan Noon, and this time for just Two years]A future plan of action  by the stake holders or a contingency plan for the Army to act upon, if a legal authority called upon it do so-was made-and Attiqur Rahman as the VCGS, Brig.S.G.M Peerzada DMO including Yahya Khan the CGS were involved in the making-Under the guide lines of General Ayub Khan-the plan was worked out on  a ‘D’ Day basis-the key plan was a chronological order of actions that had to be taken-issue of instructions, movement of troops, organizations of HQ’s at Karachi, announcements that had to be made, speeches for the radio, security of key installations-A security plan had also been made for the movement of key personnel to Karachi and elsewhere under cover of normal conferences.

The- DMO [Brig.SGM Peerzada] according to the plan was to move to Karachi from the GHQ-and work under Yahya Khan, days prior to the D’ Day, while Attique and Gen Musa Chief of Staff  were to stay back. Two copies of the whole plan had been prepared, with one in custody of Peerzada and other with Attique each page was marked with serial numbers ,and even on an open land- line. Peerzada was to read out the serial numbers and action on the relevant page was to be done-

Let me remind the readers of my Part-one of this article-”After the typing had ceased and letters checked for any errors all three proceeded to the Military Secretary Office i.e Colonel Nawazish Ali. Shortly later walked in Iskander Mirza and checked the letters. Thereafter walked in Gen. Ayub khan accompanied by Gen. Burk and  Gen. Azam Khan all three saluted Iskander Mirza then Ayub khan said; ”Everything is okay’ Sir-Operation is complete”.

They all shook hands and congratulated each other over the flawless operation, on this note walked in five waiters each with Bottles of whiskey/soda and glasses. Iskander Mirza with a smile on his face after a few sips asked Gen. Ayub,”Ayub, will I be alive tomorrow?”

Ayub Khan walked up to him and put his arm around his back and held him.

So technically the whole operational side of both[night 7/8th Oct & night 27/28 Oct] 1958 coup’s was stage managed by Yahya Khan the CGS and resultantly we find him so close with Ayub Khan, in all subsequent matters.

[To be continued….]

Pakistan: walking the tight rope?

 Cross Post:

ArticleYAACharles M. Schulz was a great cartoonist. His world acclaimed cartoon series of ‘Peanuts’ still remains popular being reprinted again and again. “How can I play baseball when I’m worried about foreign policy?” he asks (The Complete Peanuts, Vol. 6: 1961-1962). Indeed, foreign policy of any country has to be a balancing of many acts, juggling various interests with different desired objectives, many a time at odds with each other. With Pakistan it’s more of walking on a tight rope. The changing geo-political scenario demands a serious formation of a well thought out foreign policy.

On the eve of United States forces exit from next door Afghanistan, Pakistan needs some clear headed thinking to determine its course of relationships in particular with its neighbouring countries. The recent visit of Iranian Interior Minister Abdolreza Rahmani Fazli to Pakistan and PM Nawaz’s subsequent visit to Iran must be seen in the backdrop of its growing cozy relationship with Saudi Arabia. The latter has recently loaned $1.5 billion to Pakistan “to help Islamabad shore up its foreign exchange reserves, meet debt-service obligations and undertake large energy and infrastructure projects.” (Reuters Mar 13, 2014) This was not all. On February 18, 2014, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia signed a $183 million credit agreement. One dealt with the construction of a hydro-power project in Chitral, while the other with the import of urea fertiliser from Saudi Arabia. These overtures are being eyed with great unease by pre-dominantly Shi’a Iran. Particularly as Pakistan decided to support Saudi Arabia in its demand to replace Bashar al Assad’s regime with an interim government in Syria on the same date as the signing of the agreement. Their immediate reaction to signing of the million credit agreement was that on the very same date Iran issued a threat to Pakistan to send forces within its borders should it fail to rescue the five Iranian border guards abducted 10 days prior to these developments. Although it is claimed by a local newspaper that they were kidnapped from Iran’s Sistan-Baluchestan province, adjoining Pakistan.

Iran has increased the numbers of security heads at this border already. According to a report by a local newspaper, “Iran’s police chief has hinted that his country would seal its border with Pakistan any time. “It is very important to ensure security on the eastern border.” (May 5, 2014)

There are a number of thorny issues that will come under consideration during the Prime Minister’s visit to Iran. The gas pipeline between Iran and Pakistan is one. In my op-ed published December 24, 2013 I had written, “There could have been many reasons for Pakistan playing coy on the project; or maybe a mix of reasons. First, Pakistan may have dilly dallied owing to the rates at which it would have had to import the gas from Iran even after the project was completed. The rates would have been high. Much higher than the ability of the average domestic consumer to afford. According to a report by a local newspaper, “Iran itself imports gas from Turkmenistan at USD 4/MMBtu while the price at which it would export to Pakistan is an exorbitant figure of USD 14/MMBtu” (Published 2013-11-09). Added to this is the fact that Iran herself imports gas; seasonal increases in the demand in winter makes it difficult for Iran to supply gas to Turkey as per their needs. “On October 1, Iranian Oil Minister Bijan Namdar Zanganeh himself raised concern about Iran facing serious gas shortage because of slow progress in raising levels of production from South Pars – the field that is supposed to fill the IP pipeline. If such factors were seriously taken into account, the pipeline agreement would likely have never been signed at the first place.” (Published 2013-11-09)Though Iran and Pakistan have agreed to move ahead on this project during Nawaz Sharif’s visit to Iran, offering words to implement the project without taking any steps to do so indefinitely may well raise temperatures.How does Pakistan deflect imposition of economic sanctions by the western countries particularly US if it decides to go ahead is anybody’s guess?

Iran has increased the numbers of security heads at this border already. According to a report by a local newspaper, “Iran’s police chief has hinted that his country would seal its border with Pakistan any time.

Another issue of burning importance to Iran will be Syria. In my op-ed dated September 03, 2013 titled, ‘Syria and the ‘Greater Iran’ I wrote, “There are the religious-geographic dynamics that cannot be overlooked. Hezbollah and Iran in hands with Alawites of Syria have been aiming at reviving the Greater Iran, keeping in view their own schismatic ideology, the effects of which reflect in the current proxy war in Pakistan. The geographic link formed is Hezbollah on one end, Syria and Iraq forming the center with Iran at the other end converging to solidify a unified religious school of thought. Is the Middle East or South Asia ready for the revival of a Greater Iran?”

Pakistan has to walk a tight rope between Iran and Saudi Arabia, the former pre-dominantly Shi’a and the latter pre -dominantly Sunni. Coming back to Afghanistan; Hamid Karzai paid a visit to Iran in December 2013. The visit bore fruit. Both countries signed a “pact of friendship and cooperation”. This agreement between the countries was not a first in recent times. In 2013 both had earlier entered into a security agreement. In yet another of my pieces I wrote, “According to a report 70 per cent of media in the country today is controlled by Iran. Another report by Reuters says Iran spends $100 million a year in Afghanistan, much of it on media, civil society projects and religious schools; quoting Daud Moradian, a former foreign ministry advisor, who now teaches at the American University in Kabul (Published May 24, 2012). The impact of propaganda and one-sided “truth” are immense… Iran had supported non-Taliban groups in 1990s and may revert to doing so yet again. To accept a predominantly Sunni regime in the face of Taliban in power may result in a proxy war, supporting the Afghanistan’s Hazara populace that is mostly Shi’a. Iran’s pursuance of its schismatic policy in Afghanistan will continue to provoke divisions along the fault lines in Afghan society” (Published October 08, 2013).

Iran is not the only country interested in developing friendlier relations with Afghanistan. India too has invested heavily in Afghanistan. “India has donated or helped to build electrical power plants, health facilities for children and amputees, 400 buses and 200 minibuses, and a fleet of aircraft for Ariana Afghan Airlines. India has also been involved in constructing power lines, digging wells, running sanitation projects and using solar energy to light up villages, while Indian telecommunications personnel have built digitised telecommunications networks in 11 provinces. One thousand Afghan students a year have been offered scholarships to Indian universities. India has also played a key role in the construction of a new Afghan parliament in Kabul at a cost of $25 million.”(William Dalrymple: a Brookings Essay titled; A Deadly Triangle: Afghanistan, Pakistan & India)

India has also invested heavily in the Ayni Air Base also known as the ‘Gissar Air Base’ placed 10km west of the capital of Tajikistan-Dushanbe. Not only this; India also has a foothold on the Farkhor Air Base; a military air base. This strategic base is located near the town of Farkhor in Tajikistan. This is roughly 130 kilometers south east of the capital Dushanbe. Aircrafts that take off from Farkhor, need literally minutes to be in Pakistan air space. I had written earlier, “These combined steps places India in a strong position for the ‘new’ great game that is emerging with a changed political landscape in Afghanistan. Islamabad fears; and for good reason that an India and Tajikistan nexus will lead to an infiltration via Afghanistan, using an unprotected western flank that will “encircle” Pakistan, cutting off oxygen. What Pakistan must do; is to redraw its foreign policy.”

In this scenario, Pakistan needs to marry together short and long term balanced and well thought out foreign policy. Pakistan must rise to the occasion.

The writer is a lawyer, academic and political analyst. She has authored a book titled ‘A Comparative Analysis of Media & Media Laws in Pakistan.’ She can be contacted at: and tweets at @yasmeen_9.

India’s incoherent election?


ArticleYAABJP is in with a landslide victory of 283 seats. It is the first time in nearly 30 years that any party has swept in with such an awesome majority as a single party. BJP walked away with 66 seats in Uttar Pradesh allowing Samajwadi party only nine seats. BJP bagged all of 26 seats in Gujarat, which is Modi’s home turf. His party also bagged all seats in Rajasthan; 26 in number. In Bihar too, the BJP won 24 seats upsetting Janata Dal United party which only managed to scrape together four seats. Congress faced the biggest defeat in elections 2014.

“President Obama on Friday telephoned prime minister-designate Narendra Modi and invited him to visit Washington at a mutually agreeable time to further strengthen bilateral ties between the two countries”. (The Times of India May 17, 2014) All this and more will come. The BJP’s sweep into power may be reason for celebrations — but it points towards one clear factor; expectations of Indians from the incoming dispensation. K Hussan Zia, author of “Pakistan: Roots, Perspective and Genesis” and “Muslims and the West: A Muslim Perspective” in a mail to me wrote, “There is a reality about India that is generally not appreciated. Internally it is an unholy mess. The administrative set up that kept the country together under the British is now in tatters. By some estimates government writ no longer prevails in 40 per cent of India where Naxalites and other such outfits hold sway. More than that, her regional diversity made worse by such ruthless actions as the killing of hundreds of thousands of Sikhs and Kashmiris is taking its toll in pulling the country apart. Add to all this the fact that two thirds of its 1.3 billion population lives below the poverty line and you have a powder keg ready to explode. The only way Mr Modi can buy some time is by using the tested method of keeping the attention of the people diverted towards an outside threat. For that purpose Pakistan must be the obvious choice. India needs Pakistan as the enemy if it is to stay together. Mr Modi, like his predecessors, will gladly accept whatever concessions Pakistan may make but the basic situation will not change. We also must remember that Mr Modi owes his success to his Hindu communalist agenda. There are seven million trained RSS cadres totally committed to ‘purifying’ India. They see Muslims, Christians and even Sikhs as an abomination. Modi has neither a way of ignoring this nor probably any desire to do so either. We must not entertain any unrealistic hopes. There is rough weather lying ahead. It is time to batten down hatches and prepare for the worse to come. This will save us from nasty surprises that may be in store otherwise.”

Modi and his party needs to look inwards towards trying to address the issues faced by India. Turning the direction of fire towards Pakistan will only take him that far before back firing.

In a moving piece, Ira Trivedi writes, “It is in Varanasi that I meet Ram Paswan. He runs a shop selling materials for cremating dead bodies. (Varanasi is also where Hindus go to die, so his is a lucrative business). Paswan, who has long been a supporter of the Hindu-nationalist BharatiyaJanata Party (BJP), is thrilled that Modi, the future prime minister, ran from his city. His neighbour, Alam Khan, who runs a barbershop, is not. Khan belongs to the 19 percent of Varanasi’s population that is Muslim and which sees Modi, who has been charged with complicity in the 2002 riots and pogroms against Muslims in Gujarat, as dangerous. Hindus and Muslims have co-existed peacefully in Varanasi for centuries. But Modi’s campaign there has changed things, creating a rift between Paswan and Khan — and between many others. ‘My religion comes before my friendship,’ Alam tells me. ‘We don’t have too many options in this election, but Modi is not the right choice for our people’”. She goes on to say, “But in this election, Modi’s economic track record is almost beside the point. He might have emphasised growth, development, and industrialisation, but the BJP, at its base, is a Hindu-nationalist party”. (Foreign Affairs May 15, 2014)

An overwhelmingly clear mandate means a higher graph of expectations. The Hindu Business Line writes, “The landslide victory for the BJP has raised the hopes of the industry honchos who are hoping that the mandate will be used by the new government to push through tough economic reforms”. The paper shares view by Vineet Nayar, Founder, Sampark Foundation & Former CEO, HCL Technologies,“As 800 million Indians exercised their vote in the largest democracy of the world, debates, comments and opinions have been simmering in every kitchen this past month… In my view, the new leadership needs to focus on three broad areas. First, deliver efficient governance at the bottom of the pyramid so that every Indian feels the change which he or she has voted for. Two, drive effectiveness in executing programs and policies already in place so that the wheels of the government move much, much faster and we see a sense of urgency to get things done… Three, define and execute on a bigger, bolder vision for the country that gives India a competitive advantage in the global markets of trade, commerce and share of voice in key decisions that impact the world. Lastly, our young population is the biggest mass of our national identity and competitiveness and the focus of our nation should be around enabling, enthusing and empowering them. If we can build their knowledge and skills, they will become tremendous economic assets otherwise they will be relegated as cheap labour and consumers for the west’s production engine and we will continue to be an ‘emerging nation’ forever.”

The point I’m trying to make here is an interesting contradiction between what the Indians expect of their new leadership and the core approach of Modi — here; there is many a slip between the cup and the lip. Varghese K George says, “The BJP had put its hardcore Hindutva agenda on the backburner when it began alliance building in 1996, but with absolute numbers on its side, the demand from within to bring these up may rise”. (The Hindu) Though Modi had assured the Indians against such an event happening let us not forget that was before the elections.

Focusing on religion based agenda will not work. It was not just Hindus that voted for Modi. That much is obvious.

Modi and his party needs to look inwards towards trying to address the issues faced by India. Turning the direction of fire towards Pakistan will only take him that far before back firing. The information explosion bringing down the geographical boundaries has taken care of that. Ram Mashru, writing for The Diplomat, states, “A major survey carried out by the University of Pennsylvania, serialised by The Times of India in March, found that economic growth was the issue at the heart of India’s elections. More than half of India’s populations are below the age of 26, GDP growth has stagnated at the five per cent mark, and India’s central bank has failed to tie a leash around inflation. Disappointing economic conditions, coupled with widespread anger at the incumbent left-wing coalition’s failure to revive the country’s economy, have boosted Modi’s stock”. (May 15, 2014) The view is supported by William Dalrymple, “A series of voter surveys has shown that concern over the collapse of the Indian economy is the single most important factor in this election for almost all voters, of all religions, whether urban and rural”. (The Guardian, 12 MAY, 2014)

Focusing on religion based agenda will not work. It was not just Hindus that voted for Modi. That much is obvious. The voters converged from a cross spectrum of religious beliefs to stand together for a better future. The plans have to be fairly basic, notwithstanding the Bollywood glitz which is not a true reflection of India by any standards; people hanker after economic development that filters down to their lives. With such a heavy mandate; the buck cannot be passed on.

Can Modi deliver?

The writer is a lawyer, academic and political analyst. She has authored a book titled ‘A Comparative Analysis of Media & Media Laws in Pakistan.’ She is also member Task Force formed under Standing Committee on Information, Broadcasting & heritage (National Assembly) formed to review & amend media laws of Pakistan. She can be contacted at: and tweets at @yasmeen_9.

The Pakistan Coup detat of 1958: Part III

You can read: ‘The Pakistan  Coup detat of  1958: Part 1 on by clicking the link:

You can read: ‘The Pakistan  Coup detat of  1958: Part 11 on by clicking the link:

Naveed PicNaveed Tajammal

Before proceeding further we must analyses the mess our founding fathers had created and how the Gang manipulated and delayed the Constitution making-and later abrogated it-when and where  it suited them. The Independence Act of 1947- Had clearly laid down a quasi-federal parliamentary system-Section 8 laid down for the both the new states a ruling, that until the constitution was farmed, the interim arrangements for the country would be as laid down in GOI Act of 1935,and the this Act’ was based on the Report of Simon Commission ,published in two volumes in May 1930.Which had been vehemently resisted by Public at large since its inception in 1928,The Act of 1935 had 321 sections with 10 schedules and was custom made for the British Indian Empire’s shenanigans, lastly it was the longest ever legislation passed by the British Parliament. But Remember it was made for the never ending rule of the Empire-Second World war had yet to come. These were the carrots put before the public from time to time to defuse a alarming situation, when it reached a peak.

Now we must study briefly about the Constituent Assembly which was first convened on 11 Aug 1947-The members of this August Assembly were those who had been elected in the General Elections of British Indian Empire in 1945/46.After the end of 2nd world war in Asia on 02 September 1945 and final surrender of Japanese forces in Burma on 13 September 1945-On the 19th September 1945-The then Viceroy-Lord Wavell  of the British Indian Empire announced that the General Elections, would be held between December 1945 and January 1946-and would cover both the seats for the Central and Provincial legislatures-the end result was that, the Muslim League could form its ministries only in Bengal and Sind Provinces-Punjab was with a coalition, of Congress, unionist and Sikh Alkalis’ NWFP and was with Congress till Aug 1947-It were these elected members-who had opted to stay back after 14 Aug 1947 in both the wings who became the members of our  future constitution making mechanism-Having Constituted this Constituent Assembly, everybody got busy in the newly created state of Pakistan, enjoying the perks and so were these members who were entrusted and they willfully delayed the Constitution making till this Constituent Assembly was dissolved on 24 Oct 1954-each group had its own vested interests in the delay.

It was not until 23rd March 1956 that a new constitution could be introduced. The priority of making a constitution it seems was never a priority. Our Anglophile ruled supreme and preferred living under their Queen.

 The constitution of India was adopted on 26 November 1949-which made it in a sovereign state, however it came in effect on 26 Jan 1950-[the date 26 January- was adopted by the Ruling Indian Congress party, because on 26 Jan 1930-the congress had made the declaration of Indian Independence].After this date India ceased to be a Dominion of the British Crown.

Whereas the best that could be done by our Constituent Assembly members tasked with making our Constitution-was to pass the Objective resolution on 07 March 1949,which was supposed to set the frame work for the future constitution. Shortly thereafter on 12 March 1949,the Assembly appointed a Basic Principles Committee [BPC]-which further made three more Sub-Committee’s each heading the following three [1] The Federal Constitution and distribution of power [2] Franchise [3] The role of Judiciary. It was only on 07 September 1950, that the BPC presented its interim report that too was the work of the First Sub-Committee, which submitted its recommendations on a proposed Federal structure. Addressing a rally in Lahore on October 14, 1950, Maulana Maududi demanded its dissolution, arguing that the ‘Lamp-post legislators’ were incapable of drawing up an Islamic constitution.

The political canvas of Pakistan in the post 1947 era was overshadowed by feudal’ fattened by the departure of the Hindu and Sikh money lenders who had them in their vice grip-and likewise, after the departure of the Hindu and Sikh larger landowners, these former Crown lackeys had put their claws in their properties as well Liaqat Ali Khan instead of addressing the issue as had the Indians done-by doing away with their 545 States and such like lot-joined the Mafia, for his own survival & after the death of Mr. Jinnah things worsen. The result of his weakness proved disastrous for the country-As he failed to give a constitution to the country. However, Liaqat Ali Khan as was seen manipulated the same constituent Assembly where it suited him-and served his ends-as was seen in the case of officers involved in the Coup of 1951-A Bill to try these Army Officers was introduced in the Constituent Assembly on 13 April 1951-termed as ‘The Rawalpindi Conspiracy- Special Tribunal Bill’. On the morning of 16 April it was passed-but not before a heated discussion on it-by the opposition members. According to the opposition, all from the Bengali leaders- led by Mr. Dhirendranath Datta, that, ”it abrogated the rights of the accused, which was contrary to the normal laws’- the Bill was a mockery to justice, on a point of order Dhirendranath, further stated, being a lawyer himself, that, ‘This bill was out to amend provisions of Code of Criminal Law procedures, the Evidence Act and the Army Act, therefore, it came under the competence of the Federal Legislature and certainly Not under the propriety of the Constituent Assembly-as had been had wrongly done so, with mala fide intentions. Dhirendranath further argued that, ‘under the Constituent assembly of Pakistan procedure rules, a bill could be introduced in the Constituent assembly for purpose of making the constitution or amending the Independence Act or amending the Government of India Act 1935,which was adapted in Pakistan, as an interim constitutional framework of the country.

The crux of all these shenanigans by Liaqat Ali Khan which resulted in bulldozing the fundamental rights was the First of its kind-and totally at variance with the prevailing liberal laws current in the country till this Act was enforced.

This Act abrogated the rights of the accused, it relaxed the standards of prosecution evidence and laid stringent trial procedures to suit the prosecution side alone.

All this was done at the expense of sound principles of criminal administration and the so-called Democratic Government of Liaqat Ali Khan in our formative period of independence-the end result was that it set the First Tradition of bad governance and a total disregard for the human fundamental rights.

And so it became the foundation of each successive regime Military or Civil to twist and turn laws to make more repressive laws, rules and practices so started a chain of perverting policies in our politics-which resulted in perverting the course of justice.

The constitutional vacuum left by Liaqat Ali Khan strengthened the hold of feudalism and bureaucracy on the country-Both groups were Fascists in their outlook and paid only lip service to the central state-After the death of Liaqat Ali khan-in his shoes stepped Ghulam Mohammad and his buddy Iskandar Mirza both were bureaucrats turned politicians and hovering in the background in his sly manner remained Ayub Khan,-Sadly the Bengali Group led by Kh.Nazimuddin who technically represented the Majority was  outmaneuvered  by these three clever manipulators, each one bidding his own time to strike Khawaja Nazimuddin though a good man was  made a scape goat-by a conspiracy hatched between the trio-as the day Liaqat Ali Khan had died Ghulam Mohammad was in Rawalpindi-and Khawaja Nazimuddin was in Nathiagali -and instead that the successor of Liaqat Ali Khan be chosen by the party in power, Ghulam Mohammad the finance minister became the Governor-General and the Governor General was demoted and became the Prime Minister-all this was done by an announcement, that the cabinet had so decided. Kh. Nazimuddin suffered as he had not bothered to establish his networking in the bureaucracy nor in the Army-and had neither any influence over industry and trade of the country, which from the inception of Pakistan had been ‘monopolized’ by ‘Khojas’ & ‘memos’ from Maharashtra and Gujrat, who were mostly resident in Karachi and Decca followed by the Delhi Saudagara’an  Mafia and the balance were the hide & skin merchants of Bengal, Madras and Bombay presidencies who all had timely flocked in to do the pickings- They all had their mentors in both the wings-so Kh. Nazimuddin was left high and dry.


Meanwhile serious political unrest had been brewing up due to chronic food shortage, which were the result of the economic policies of Ghulam Mohammad who was serving many masters-All these setbacks were now attributed to Kh.Nazimuddin-and he was openly being called as the ‘Quaid e Qillat’ [Leader of scarcity].meanwhile Ayub Khan,  Iskandar Mirza and Ghulam Mohammad played their games-The start of 1953 saw widespread disturbances in the country-resulting in the imposition of Martial Law-a situation which could have been handled as was seen in Karachi-on 21st January 1953,when a deputation of Ulema authorized by ‘Majlis-i-Amal ‘constituted by All Pakistan Muslim Parties Convention held in Karachi from 16th to 18th January 1953,delivered its ultimatum to Kh. Nazimuddin to declare the Qadiani as a non-Muslim minority and inclusive of Ch. Zafrullah who was the Foreign Minister and as well all those in Civil & Military Services of the same creed be removed from the offices within one month. Otherwise they would resort to direct action. However in a meeting held on 27 Feb 1953 it was decided to reject the ultimatum and to arrest the prominent members of the Majlis- i- Amal in Karachi and from various parts in the Punjab.

 Iskandar Mirza being the Secretary Defense was the leader- and Ayub Khan seeing the situation ideal- both pressurized Kh. Nazimuddin that Martial Law be imposed in Lahore-taking his consent Iskandar Mirza ordered the Deputy Chief of General Staff, General Musa Khan to dispatch the Sialkot Division to Lahore to reinforce General Azam Khan, military occupation of Lahore took place on 6th  March 1953,Governor General Ghulam Mohammad replaced Mumtaz Daultana as the chief Minister and Malik Feroze khan Noon took over, subsequently, he asked Kh.Nazimudin to resign which he refused on 17 April 1953.And so Ghulam Mohammad used the Section 10 of Government of India Act of 1935,by announcing ,that, he was pleased to dismiss his Prime Minister Kh.Nazimuddin appealed to the Queen of England  as the constitutional Sovereign of Pakistan-and his plea fell on deaf ears.

Kh. Nazimuddin was treated thereafter very shabbily, and on the Advice of Ch. Zaffarullah the F.M. Mohammad Ali Bogra who was the Ambassador in Washington and a Bengali was recalled and installed as the Prime Minster. on this installation H. M. Abbasi one of the most outstanding journalist of his time writes-in his book -which is a collection of his articles,’Over a Cup of Tea’ page-264,’…..Ghulam Mohammad after sending away Kh. Nazimuddin got his stooge Mohammad Ali Bogra in his place. When he tried to show a little independence, Iskandar Mirza and Ayub Khan received him at the Airport, and took him to the Governor-General House treated him roughly long enough to make him promise to do everything they ordered”.

It should be pertinent for the readers to know of the sincere  efforts of the brother of Ayub Khan-Sardar Bahadar Khan in building the career of Ayub Khan-Iskandar Mirza remained throughout his civil service career in NWFP and was D.C. of  Hazara and Peshawar District’s ,and Sardar Bahadar after getting his L.L.B degree from Aligarh ,joined the Muslim League-and was elected in a by-election in 1939 from Haripur and in 1942 he was the  speaker of NWFP Assembly and was re-elected in the 1945/46 General elections, The Indian National Congress under Dr. Khan Sahib won the 1946 elections despite a strong showing by the Muslim League The first session of parliament was summoned on 12 March 1946 under the Chairmanship of Sardar Bahadur Khan while Nawabzada Allah Nawaz Khan was elected as Speaker and Lala Girdheri Lal as Deputy Speaker on 13 March 1946..After 14 Aug 1947 He had joined the Govt. of Liaqat Ali Khan as the Minister of State for Foreign Affairs, Commonwealth Relations and Communications in 1949 he was promoted to be a  Cabinet Minister. And later, He served as Minister for Communications in the cabinets of multiple Prime Ministers: After demise of Liaqat Ali Khan he joined the Govt. of Kh. Nazimuddin, and as well the Govt of Mohammad Ali Bogra as a Cabinet Minister throughout their tenures- he was the Agent to Governor General of Balluchistan from 08 November 1954 to 19 July 1955.and later was made the Chief Minister of NWFP a office he held till 14 Oct 1955,when it was merged in one unit. After the 1962 Elections he became the leader of opposition in the National Assembly-Thus Ayub Khan had his own kitchen opposition-Therefore one should understand who the actual mentor of Ayub Khan was. About his active role in politics, the glimpse can be seen of his manipulation, the readers are advised to read, ‘Mohammad Ayub Khuhro’ published by Ferozesons in 1998.

[To be continued…]

The Pakistan Coup detat of 1958: Part II

A Pakpotpourri Exclusive

You can read: ‘The Pakistan  Coup detat of  1958: Part 1 on by clicking the link:

Naveed PicBy Naveed Tajammal

As stated before there were no cogent reasons for both the coups i.e that of 07/08 Oct & 27/28 Oct 1958-Other than sheer greed for more power. If you even take a cursory glance at the development, between 1947 & 1958 it proves how, the later false the propaganda was done by the Ayub Khan Regime to show its Golden 10 years-[1958-1968]The first phase of development, was complete by 1958,indeed Robber Barons had been created with free funds. However, the Industry had come up-literally from a ground zero like position- Do keep in mind that two 5 Year plans, from 1947 onward had been planned till 1960-and funds ear-marked The data below just gives glimpse of a few salient features.

In 1947 at the time of our Independence our total textile industry had only 177,418 spindles and 4,824 looms in 1958 there were 1,844,000 spindles and 28,000 looms. Although Pakistan was harvesting 6 million bales of raw jute in 1947-All jute was sent to Calcutta before independence where partly it was processed and the rest sent within the British Empire’s industrial units abroad. Likewise all other produce of East Bengal, which was surplus to its requirements was again sent to Calcutta-and it would not be an exaggeration, that the prosperity of Calcutta as the Capital of former British Indian Empire had been built on the exploitation of the resources of East Pakistan [East Bengal].

East Pakistan which did not even have a single jute loom in 1947-had  by 1958-8,000 jute looms and which were producing 1,50,000 tons of jute manufactures. The port of Chittagong was so small that it could only handle 0.5 million tons per annum, in 1958 it was handling 2.5 million tons. As the port of Chittagong was built almost anew with new quay walls, new cranes and new goods sheds, the project had cost $ 20 million, work on the new Chalna port ,later it was shifted to Mongla in East Pakistan ,and work was finished in 1954,and was taking almost one million tons of goods. The raw cotton produced in West Pakistan regions in pre-Independence was fully transported to Bombay-Ahmedabad and Cawnpore Finished cloth was re-shipped, from these three cities for local consumption.

In 1947-there was not a single spindle producing woolen goods-by 1958,there were 13,700 spindle producing about 18 million lbs. of woolen yarns-which were equal in quality with imported woolen cloth. There was only one hydrogenated oil factory producing 2,500 tons of vegetables product. In 1958 there arose 6 more factories producing 20,000 tons per annum. Sugar produced in West Pakistan in 1947 was 7,932 tons, by1958 the production was 123,558 tons. In East Pakistan 5 mini sugar mills were producing 23,061 tons of sugar, by 1958 with an addition of 3 large sugar mills there was a addition of another 30,000 tons.

There was no cigarettes factory in Pakistan in 1947-by1958,Six new factories were set up in West Pakistan and two in East Pakistan-total cigarettes production was 7469.7 million. In East Pakistan Karnaphuli Paper mills ,established by PIDC had come in production by 1953 producing 30,000 tons, the biggest than in Asia-though it is amazing why Ayub Khan, handed away on a platter, this unit to the Dawood group in 1964.

Beco was set up in 1951-At Badamibagh Lahore, with the help of European & American technology it had started producing high quality machine tools, pumps, power looms, concrete mixers cranes, power presses, electric motors ,by-cycles, steel rolled products, electric transmission towers and structure & general fabrication. Local indigenous mechanical & electrical units had started the manufacture of 20 H.P. Centrifugal Pumps-along with 20 H.P. Electric Motors, and electric fan industry too had emerged, and other electric goods were also being made. In Karachi production of electric cable manufacture and electric bulbs had started, the German Firm A.E.G had set up a unit which was making electric motors, transformers and other heavy electric gear, a Swedish firm was producing packing material and packages for cigarettes, tea and pharmaceutical industries, American General Mills had set up a plant in Karachi to produce gum of local raw material. Glass industry too had emerged in both the wings, inclusive of sheet glass. The cement production in 1947 was barely 325,000 tons by 1958 it was producing 1,000,000 tons. Two of these new factories had been financed through the Colombo plan-and generous aid given by Governments of Canada and New Zealand. And were producing under Maple Leaf & Zeal-Pak Cement-and were being expanded as per the second 5 year plan to add 200,000 tons more in the total Cement production.

Plastic, pencil, high grade board, card board etc etc industries had started their production much earlier in 1950’s,Assembly plants for cars, trucks, radios etc had already been set up. The Sports goods industry had done a tremendous work and expanded very fast by 1958 was earning in those days value of dollars-$ 2.70 million. Pharmaceutical industries had been set up, some were manufacturing drugs and others repacking them-all the same the industry had started to work, a Penicillin plant was under erection, whereas the D.D.T plant was already in production, both the plants had been financed by UNICEF, as to the role of multinational companies like I.C.I had been operating the soda ash plant at P.D. Khan ,in 1944,however it was in 1952 that they started fully investing in Pakistan, Unilever had set up its main plant in Rahim Yar Khan in 1948-with it came its wide range of soaps and detergents and Ghee and oil products. Plants producing caustic soda were set up. Sulphuric acid plants were set up in both wings, with plant producing Alum, the fertilizer production of ammonium sulphate had reached 50,000 tons. Two more plants in both the wings were under erection and installation and each would produce 100,000 tons, thus bringing total to 250,000 tons.

Bayer’s multinational company was in process of setting up its plant of basic dyes. Many small cottage industries had sprung up. Handloom textiles were being exported to U.S.A. The Pakistani-Surgical instruments, too had established their market in the world.

The Government of Pakistan had already established in collaboration with foreign firms two industries, the First being the Security Printing Press, with the help of De La Rue’s as partners, this press had started the printing of our currency notes-The second was a collaboration with Siemens to produce telephone instruments and telephone exchanges. Vegetable oil total production had reached 100,000 tons by 1958.Sui Gas pipe line till Karachi had been completed by 1955, another had reached Multan, and this line was laid to feed the Multan Electric Company and the Fertilizer Plant. And the third had been earmarked for Lahore and Lyallpur [Faisalabad]-A small natural gas pipe line had been laid extracting gas from the oil fields of Rawalpindi region and was supplying 6 million cubic feet of gas per day. In East Pakistan the major share of Gas was being utilized by the Fertilizer plant, and Cement Factory at Chhattak. The production of gypsum arose from 1947 [15,866]to 64,064 tons in 1958,coal production arose from 358,000 tons to 516,000 tons, limestone from 341,000 to 913,900 tons, crude petroleum from 13.2 million Imp Gallons to 76.9 million Imp Gallons. Negotiations with different foreign, companies were under way to set up an Oil Refinery.

At the Time of our Independence due to War efforts and maximum bulk of transportation done via the Railways-and the British seeing the changing tides after 1945 had stopped investing in this sector-The  track and rolling stocks had suffered very badly and were considerably run down-Pakistan after 1947 had to undertake a large scale urgent repairs programme-Pakistan obtained two loans of $ 27.2 million and $31.1 million from International Bank for Reconstruction and development, and with these loans had bought diesel electric engines, wagons, carriages and track material-in addition USA also assisted the Railways by financing the purchase of diesel electric engines. The Govt of Australia too gave in AID a large number of diesel electric engines-It had been envisaged that a further $ 140 million  was required to fully restore the Railways because of neglect and usage in the 6 years of second world war.

It would be interesting to note that in 1948/49 the goods carried in East Pakistan Railways were 3,838,000 tons in 1956/57 they were 4,603,000 tons, in West Pakistan the Railways carried ,in 1948/49 6,356,000 tons and in 1956/57 it was  10,866,000 tons, the passenger traffic in East Pakistan in 1948/49 was 67,500,000 and in 1956/57 it had increased to 86,783,000,in West Pakistan it was 71,654,000 in 1948/49 and by 1956/57 it had increased to 95,535,000.It was a dedicated team work of Railways that in spite of faults within they carried on the their Job.

Pakistan hardly had any Shipping in 1947-the gross tonnage was 6,000 tons, by 1958 it was near 162,370 tons, in 1957/58 Pakistan had acquired 10 ships with 64,629 tonnage. As the distance between Karachi and Chittagong was 2500 miles the need for Airway Cargo was felt so a fleet of super constellations was operating 8 services/week by 1958,for flight passengers, there was an addition of 5 new viscount planes, out  of which 3 were already in service.

Post, telegraph and telephone services had been upgraded substantially since Independence, The assets in 1947 were only 36.5 million rupees, by end of 1957, they had arisen to 244.8 million rupees. There were only 15,000 telephone connections in 1947 by end of 1957 there were 56,000.

At the time of Independence there were only a few banks registered in Pakistan, except for Habib Bank, other banks were very small having a total capital of no more than two million rupees. National Bank of Pakistan was started by GOP in March 1950-The Govt was using this bank for financing of food grains and it was helped by the State Bank with funds, the deposits of NBP stood at 755 million rupees in December 1958.

Soon after Independence 8 million refugees migrated to Pakistan and those who left were less than 5 million, it was these 8 million who had to be adjusted. The GOP set up a Refugees Rehabilitation Finance Corporation by an Act of Parliament, a total of 40 million rupees was loaned to these refugees to establish them in small trades and industries besides the lion share of lands and properties which came under evacuee properties.

Karachi as per 1941 Census had 400,000 people, even in 1947 it had swelled to 4.5 Lakh only, by 1957/58 it was hovering at 1.78 million. When GOP decided to make Karachi as its capital it had neither accommodation nor offices. The GOP set up a HBFC [House building finance corporation] till 1958 it had given loaned out 52.8 million rupees. To finance industries PIFC [Pakistan Industrial Finance Corporation] was established by 1958 120 million  rupees, had been given to borrowers.

PICIC [Pakistan Industrial Credit Investment Corporation], had been established likewise-The International Bank had given it a loan of $4.2 million. U.S Govt gave it three million rupees while U.K. gave three million and Japan two million, as industry grew USA gave a further loan of 30 million rupees, and State Bank injected another 30 million rupees.

Numerous Co-operative Banks and Co-operative societies had been established all over the both wings. Agriculture Finance Corporation had been established in 1953, by 1958 it had loaned out 14.7 million rupees. As Pakistan had 100,000 villages it was felt that Agriculture Bank was needed so in 1957, this Bank was established.

A Land Reform Commission was established in 1957 and in Jan 1958,the Commission presented its report to the GOP, after one week deliberation the GOP accepted the recommendation, The Commission had ruled a law, by which compensation was to be given to the landlords on a sliding scale, the smaller the landholding the better the compensation, the commission had recommended,500 acres of good irrigated land or 1000 acres of un-irrigated  to each landlord-The surplus land of landlord was to be distributed to the tenants, who were to pay the price in easy installments, and become the owners, to stop the fragmentation of land, a minimum holding of 50 acres was fixed which could not be reduced either by gift or sale [Agriculture-Ch v, ”Ajj Aur Kul”-Syed.Amjad Ali,1959.]

After Independence Pakistan became, what USA had faced in the 19th century, because of the Gold Rush -all small time Muslim-traders spread throughout the length and breadth of British Indian Empire even from Burma and Singapore Converged into both the wings-Gustav F Papanek, the author of the book, ‘Pakistan’s : Development-Social Goals & Private incentives’ Harvard University -1967,who had interviewed the Top 100 people in our Industry in 1958/59,amongst them were the famous 22 Families too, found that only 17 out of 100 had some experience of Running a industry-rest were all Traders and exporters, mainly of Hides & Skins.

Gustav Papanek-remained associated with our Planning Commission from 1954 onward-as the Project Field Supervisor to the Harvard Advisory Group attached with the Planning Commission.

Massive concentration of wealth the coffers of a few about which rumours,had been circulating since mid-1950’s,became a reality, after the report of a Credit Inquiry Committee of State Bank of Pakistan, revealed that, in all, only 222 individual depositors in both the wings were making use of 2/3rd of the total credit facilities offered by the banking system, earlier Gustav Papanek too had observed that out of total 3,000 firms/companies established in Pakistan since 1947 till late 1950’s-Only 24 out of 3000 Controlled nearly half of the Industrial Assets within Pakistan. The massive industrialization done between 1947 from ground zero like conditions till Ayub Khan took over, resulted in utter chaos under his Thumb Rule-Ayub Khan became a puppet in their hands-the result was that between 1959 to 1965 these few families had gained total monopolies in our country-it was then that Dr. Mahboob ul Haq had made his famous speech in Karachi in 1965,being the Chief Economist with the Planning Commission, he had stated that Pakistani economy was dominated by just 22 odd families who owned 66 % of the total industrial assets,70 % of insurance & 80 % of the banking.

This concentration of wealth became one of the causes of effective slogans raised by separatists of East Pakistan and was,also the political slogan of  ZAB & his PPP, which led to badly handled-Nationalization.

[To be continued]

No pot shots at media


ArticleYAAMajor Amir left Taliban Talks in April this month. What caught my eye though was the reason why he decided to do so. The reason was ‘media hype’ created.(Pakistan Today April 29, 2014) “ The government peace process with the banned Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan(TTP) suffered a major blow as a key player of the dialogue process , Major® Mohammad Amir, quit the dialogue process in protest against the ‘unabated media hype’ created by some members of the Taliban negotiating panel  for ‘personal projection’ and ‘party agendas’ reports the newspaper. The report continued to share, “Making premature announcements about the release of prisoners and alleging that the government’s negotiators did not make demands for release of civilians held captive by militants may further damage the confidence-building measures.”

The news did not come as a surprise. Something like this was anticipated as pointed out in my op-ed published March 3, 2014.  I had categorically pointed out the possibility of a media hype and its cascading effects, “The failure of recent talks may have been a result of b) Reporting of every ongoing step or lack of it in media, making rigidity of positions inevitable.”

We need to look at the picture here closely without taking pot shots at the media. The picture reflects certain facts. Fact one is that any media on commercial basis depends largely on advertising given to the channel. The reason I choose to focus more on the electronic medium of communication is simple. In today’s world, electronic media has emerged as the main opinion maker. In a country like Pakistan, with low literacy rate, television is not only accessible but viewed across the different income and education strata.

The competition between channels is vicious. Higher the viewing the higher the rating. Higher the rating, higher the commercial success and advertising benefits. The game revolves around finances, pure and simple. News has generally speaking become more sensationalized tailored to gain more viewers. A very interesting observation is the negligible difference in style between newspaper and television journalism in Pakistan. In newspaper writing, words must resurrect the happening for the readers. The written communication both in form of news and views must convey in words the details that cannot be shown in celluloid as on television. This style is suitable owing to the nature of the medium of communication. However, one observes the same style being followed on television whereas the viewer can see an event live or recorded. The viewer can see an event happening and can gage the enormity or impact of an event, the body language of participants so on and so forth. However, we see the newscaster translating the visual happening in great depth and detail that is unwarranted for the visual medium of communication.

When a news channel runs 24/7 it needs news to telecast. The over indulgence of “breaking news” whether or not it merits the label has become a norm. In case of any event happening, most channels will be in variance with each other in case of numbers reported of let’s say; casualties. In the hurry to release the news, verifying news may often be ignored. In order to generate interest of the public, checks by the organization based on comprehensive editorial policies is mandatory. Does the need of editorial policies get nudged out owing to a desire for increased ratings? Who suffers in the end?

This brings me to yet another question. Where do we teach media ethics to our journalists we expect them to practice? Yes, we teach it as a mandatory course as part of syllabus of Mass Communications but how many enter the field after a masters or a bachelor’s degree in the subject? How do they learn? The answer is they don’t.  I quote from my book; ‘A Comparative Analysis of Media and Media Laws in Pakistan,’ from the chapter of electronic media, “There is a strong tendency by the media to reflect and keep on reflecting, thereby sensationalizing issues, till something juicier comes along, on murders, kidnappings, rapes. Showing the relatives of the victims beating their chest crying, wailing.  This kind of news are sought and covered, not because of the national importance but because it is thought, it will attract better viewership. Poor coverage of important issues is another. Converting non-issues into issues unfortunately happens. Earlier, I had mentioned what is in public interest and what the public may want to see can be mutually exclusive of each other. The “real” issues take a hit and are often relegated to the back burner because “issues” that may be either non-issues or minor issues are promoted as “the” issues. If talk shows are being aired, incessantly, they would more often deal with petty bickering, screaming matches between opponents invited, also leading to colorful exchange of abuses, rather than policy matters or a constructive discussion.”

The purpose here is not to take pot shots at media. Not at all and I do beg your pardon if such an erroneous impression is created.

PEMRA Ordinance 2002, Clause 20 sub clause “(b) ensure preservation of the national, cultural, social and religious values and the principles of public policy as enshrined in the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.” However, how do these ideals translate into the job description of a programme editor? Or a camera- man? Or a reporter? In the absence of any one to translate them either in form of an effective editorial policy and in the shape of training; it does not.

The important thing to understand is; greater freedom to voice opinion demands greater responsibility. Freedom to voice opinion world over is marked with certain universally acceptable limitations like hate speech, racism, defamation, copyrights, incitement to offence, obscenity, profanity, perjury, treason, invasion of privacy, abetting terrorism so on and so forth.  There is nothing like an open ended cheque without any limitations. Freedom of expression, like any other liberty, brings with itself a very heavy responsibility, on the shoulders of all of those exercising that right and in particular upon those who are placed in positions to influence policies, impact and form public opinion. Free media; yes! But a responsible free media please.

William O. Douglas of the Supreme Court of the United States in the judgment of Beauharnais v. Illinois, 342 U.S. 250, 287 (1952) recorded, “The framers of the constitution knew human nature as well as we do. They too had lived in dangerous days; they too knew the suffocating influence of orthodoxy and standardized thought. They weighed the compulsions for restrained speech and thought against the abuses of liberty. They chose liberty.”

The writer is a lawyer, academic and political analyst. She has authored a book titled ‘A Comparative Analysis of Media & Media Laws in Pakistan.’ She can be contacted at: and tweets at @yasmeen_9.

Published in Pakistan Today on 6/May/2014

Death of integrity



Without exonerating culprits, we need to ask ourselves a question: Do we possess the integrity we demand of our politicians?


We lament the increasing lack of integrity in our leaders. From submitting fake degrees to the ECP (in many cases) to scams of all shades and hues, the list is endless. Every stone turned reveals one. Without exonerating culprits, we need to ask ourselves a question: Do we possess the integrity we demand of our politicians?

Urban Dictionary gives an extremely interesting definition of integrity, ‘Doing the right thing even when nobody’s looking.’ On a more formal note, it offers another definition, ‘Steadfast adherence to a strict moral or ethical code.’ Ethical code is generally defined as, ‘a system of principles governing morality and acceptable conduct,’ and a moral code as, ‘the quality of being in accord with standards of right or good conduct.’

For example, stealing, killing, lying, cheating are deemed as ‘bad conduct’ worldwide. Adrian Bishop, in a paper, ‘Moral principles defined: a decision-making perspective,’ shares, ‘One does not try and define what morality is, but one defines it by what it does.

Moral values are how one actually measures the difference between right and wrong, good and bad, positive and negative actions. This definition helps to distinguish between moral values and moral virtues. The latter, often quoted as moral values, are characteristics such as bravery, patience, altruism, generosity, prudence and so on, which affirm who the person is, whilst morality concerns itself with defining what the person should do.’

Warren Buffet, chairman and CEO of Berkshire Hathaway said it best, “In looking for people to hire, look for three qualities: integrity, intelligence, and energy. And if they don’t have the first one, the other two will kill you.” A person’s dishonesty will eventually catch up to them. It may not be today, and it may not be for many years, but you can rest assured that at some point there will always be a reckoning.’ (Forbes, 11/28/2012)

Coming back to the question; if integrity is about adhering to an ethical and moral code, how do many of us actually prescribe to it?

From the lowest level to the highest, corruption, lack of moral and ethical values seems to have replaced integrity. Of course, this is not true of everyone but in general terms seem to be true. Take a look around you. You will see innumerable examples in your daily lives. Going to grocery shopping – each shopkeeper selling vegetables will have a different rate for the same produce, often swinging wildly from Rs15/- a kilo to Rs45/-. Everyone tries to convince ‘Baji’ that the difference of price owes to a better quality of goods he alone is selling. How many times, those working have sent false excuses for not showing up for work? How many times, with unwanted guests turning up at our doorstep have been sent away with a false message sent through the servant that, ‘Sahib is not well and resting’ or the like – often in full hearing of giggling and amused offspring? How often do we grease the palms of people in different departments to get the work done; yes often for legitimate work too – because otherwise it will not be done? The list is endless and I can go on and on. But I guess you get the picture.

From the lowest level to the highest, corruption, lack of moral and ethical values seems to have replaced integrity. Of course, this is not true of everyone but in general terms seem to be true.

Does the ability to observe ethical and moral code and have integrity related in any way to observing laws? I think it does. Law is, by and large, a lot of common sense aimed to look after and preserve the rights of individuals within the society, supporting the ‘good conduct’ and opposing the ‘bad conduct.’ Organizations dealing their consumers and markets with integrity win their trust. Dan Akerson, chairman and chief executive officer of General Motors, in his ‘Leadership Message’ to the company’s employees in 2011 says, ‘Acting with integrity is something we must live every day at GM, and the current business environment makes it more important than ever. It means honest and accurate reporting of our performance. It means careful attention to our internal controls and policies. It means understanding and complying with our legal responsibilities. And, it means competing by the rules and making sure our actions match our words.’ In other words respecting the law in countries it is operating and respecting the law/policies to be followed within the organization.’

The constitution of Pakistan in Article 63 laying out disqualifications of a member of parliament states that a person shall be disqualified from being elected or chosen if ‘he has been convicted by a court of competent jurisdiction for propagating any opinion, or acting in any manner prejudicial to the ideology of Pakistan, or the sovereignty, integrity or security of Pakistan, or morality, or the maintenance of public order, or the integrity or independence of the judiciary of Pakistan, or which defames or brings into ridicule the judiciary or the armed forces of Pakistan, unless a period of five years has elapsed since his release.’ Yet another clause of Article 63 states the person may not be chosen if he has been, on conviction for any offence involving moral turpitude and sentenced for a period of two years unless five years have passed since ending of serving of the said sentence. Black’s Law Dictionary (1891-1991 Pg 1008) defines moral turpitude as, ‘The act of baseness, vileness, or the depravity in private and social duties which man owns to his fellow men, or to the society in general contrary to accepted and customary rule of right and duty between man and man.’

Things are not isolated. They are intertwined, overlapping and encircling one another. Laws are but an endorsement of supporting the good acts within the moral code of behaviour. The question then arises: Why do wrong acts go unpunished? Why are certain people perceived to be above the law while the same law deals harshly for the same crime with others?

This by no long shot means to imply a wrong becomes a right by virtue of this. What it does mean is, with a lack of respect for law, with a lack of respect for following a moral and ethical code of conduct and with a system in which each clog serves itself and its own, ignoring the ‘social duties which man owns to his fellow men, or to the society in general contrary to accepted and customary rule of right,’ the level of integrity has been allowed to slip and go unchecked.

It is here the role of strong leadership comes in play. A strong leader must support and implement laws, stand head and shoulders above corruption and be seen to be a man (or woman) of unimpeachable integrity. USIAD states on its SITE, ‘Fragile states are also characterized by weak policies, institutions, and governance.’ This will inevitably negatively impact different areas of lives of the common man creating anger and frustration. It will lead to more flaunting of laws at all levels.

A choice has to be made between good conduct and bad conduct.

Cross post from:

The Pakistan Coup d’Etat of 1958: Part I

Naveed Yajammal

A Pakpotpourri Exclusive

Naveed PicOne does not find much written on this aspect, but this much is evident that the Gang which took over from within the old Gang hierarchy-did so for personal survival instincts and not for any nationalistic motivation or such like  a noble cause.  Should one read the ‘British Papers’ declassified  & published by Oxford Press, covering unfortunately only the selective period as compiled by  Roedad Khan[[retired former  senior-civil servant]who for reasons best known to him chose selected demi-official letters; from this treasure trove of hidden knowledge. Even than one can get the drift of the gist of the manipulations which led to final exile of Iskandar Mirza & Nahid Mirza from the power corridors. Most of this information which will be highlighted in the parts of this article is that, which Sir Alexander Symons’s Karachi sent to the Whitehall, as one reads one finds that Alexander Symons had full confidence of both Iskander and Ayub, an art by itself or that of a seasoned diplomat, and perhaps it was because both were products of Sandhurst and trained or indoctrinated to a system created by the British. So one finds the Whitehall at ease with them. As one can glean if not from before but definitely from 1947 onward Iskander Mirza and Ayub Khan were soul mates.

Each one covered the other-both were master manipulators, The only third person who remains in background  & yet plays his role is  the chief justice Mohammad Munir. He gave legitimacy to the Byzantine intriguers reborn. Ghulam Mohammad as Governor-General outwardly a strong man remained the front man after the assassination of Liaqat Ali Khan. The puppet masters were both Iskander and Ayub. Both  are seen moving in the directions as given to them by their mentors, as without their tact approval they did not move-as will be explained subsequently in this article.

One fails to find any logical cogent grounds for the coup d’état of 1958, there were no imminent National crisis which had asked for such a drastic action. The later claim by Ayub khan’s junta that the coup d’état was a logical conclusion, as the country was on brink of disintegration is false and utter rubbish, and has no factual basis, other than a  rhetoric. Ayub and Iskander became a lethal team, and had not Iskander Mirza taken Ayub under his tutelage, Ayub would never have become what he became.

As is evident by these dispatches  referred above, if read closely, It was always Iskander a shrewd man and not a plaything in the hands of the Army. It was Ayub who had always sought cover behind Iskander Mirza. Do keep in mind that it was Iskander Mirza and Not Ayub who had abrogated the Constitution on the night 7/8 Oct 1958 earlier, in the phase one of the later 1958 coup d’état, which came 20 days hence on night 27/28 Oct 1958.It was Iskander Mirza who had nominated Ayub as the new designate Commander in Chief after the Death of Maj. Gen Iftikhar Ali and Brig Sher khan in the air crash.

This meteoric rise of an unknown Officer with no war laurels to support nor any worthwhile achievements, to show was indeed hand-picked, & in almost 5 years from a Major he arose to become a full General-[1945-1950].As per the Press Communiqué issued by the Defense Ministry under Iskander Mirza on 06 Sept.1950, which announced the selection of by the Governor-General. Kh. Nazimuddin of Maj. Gen Ayub Khan as the First Pakistani C in C to replace General Sir Douglas Gracie on his retirement.

The British held Iskander Mirza in high esteem till his end, as is evident by the courtesies extended to him by the British Government, these contrast very sharply with the Shabby treatment shown to Iskander Mirza by Ayub Khan who was in reality was, his created protégé.

But like it is said, ‘There are No permanent friends. Only permanent interests”.

And it is ironic that London and its Whitehall was every ready to do business as usual with Ayub Khan, after Iskander Mirza was exiled, later when the time came & the cycle took its full turn, after 25 March 1969,a tactful oral message was sent to Ayub Khan in the aftermath, by the British Govt, but it was business as usual with Yahya Khan. Here it maybe pertinent to remind the reader that Ayub by handing the power to Yahya khan had violated his own 1962 constitution, the power should have been transferred to Civil & not Military.

Soon after in Jan 1951 when Ayub Khan took over the Command of the Army, in a month, the Rawalpindi Conspiracy case was detected. Both Iskander and Ayub were tasked to interrogate the informer and so followed by a witch hunt, Army came under the yoke of both these two; Police under Qurban ali Khan the I G of Punjab was given a full mandate to cover the whole country and locate any one they found needed. The CID Punjab with Maj Gen Hayauddin as the chief liaison officer from the Army having his own axe to grind did the needful, to remove from the Army unwanted elements or subdue others. Yes men were encouraged later to rise and strong men retired. The precedence set by Ayub Khan created the great divide within the Army of the Uniformed Babus’ who rose to higher ranks and the Field Officers who fought wars, but were sent home later. In late 1952,Iskander Mirza led a military delegation to Turkey, Ayub was part of the entourage here as per pre-arranged plans both jointly met the American Under-Secretary for Defense. Finding Americans receptive Iskander Mirza sent Ayub khan to USA. This followed a return fact finding visit by a U.S. mission. Ayub Khan cunningly was developing his own personal relations with the Americans, as subsequent events speak by themselves.

In April 1954,general elections were held in East Pakistan, the Muslim League was totally routed and riots erupted all over the country. Admanjee Jute Mills at Naranganj under the bloodsucking new elite of industrialists with very  high level of cheap labor neglected and treated as slaves became the center of resistance,500 men alone in this jute mill died in the ensuing riots, Prime minister Mohammad Ali Bogra appointed Iskander Mirza as the new Governor of East Pakistan. Iskander Mirza it must be borne in mind was tethnically  a Bengali and spoke Bengal so he quickly got the situation under control, the centers of trouble were found to be University of Dacca, Colleges at Sylhet & Rajshahi.  Both the colleges were reformed & the Dacca University moved to a new campus 25 miles away from the main city of Dacca. In Aug 1954′ came heavy cyclonic rains and floods, 15000 square miles of coast land and riversides were flooded. Over 10 million people were left homeless. The Army & Air force moved in, as did American Agencies on the behest of Iskander Mirza move in and shortly the issues were handled-this gave huge impetus to the prestige of Iskander Mirza.

In West Pakistan the Governor General Ghulam Mohammad and the Prime Minister were on each other’s throats. On 21 Sept 1954, while Ghulam Mohammad was on the his usual northern tour a Legislative Coup took place in the Constituent Assembly which was aimed at rendering The Governor General powerless, by virtue of this new amendment the Governor General could only Act on the advice of the Prime Minister. Glulam Mohammad rushed back and started his own power politics in cahoots with Ayub Khan’s support.

Iskander Mirza’s son quotes this in his book,’From Plassey to Pakistan, ‘That earlier Ayub Khan had made his intentions known to John K.Emmerson the chargé d’affaires U.S Embassy Karachi, while the Ambassador Hildreth was away in USA for his daughter’ s wedding, and quotes a de-classified Top Secret Telegram no.474 dated Oct 06 1954.addressed to  the U.S Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, ”In conversation General Ayub today with General Sexton only other person present. Ayub Khan said he did not like present political situation …….Ayub said, If some action was necessary ‘hope you [the U.S] will understand…He reiterated ‘something would be done.”No mistake he meant Military would take over if necessary. Ayub asked that this conversation should not be mentioned to any Pakistani or Britisher.”[Reference to British deemed that in a Common wealth country the Head of State was appointed by the King/Queen of Britain and it was High Treason under the law of what he was thinking to do].

And it is fact that Ayub was under extreme threat himself as the Prime Minister Mohammad Ali Bogra had categorically-stated that No extension would be given to Ayub Khan in Jan 1955.

M.B Khalid was the Principle Assistant of Ghulam Mohammad since 23 Aug 1952 and remained in this slot for the next 16 years till 1968,having served Under Iskander Mirza and Ayub Khan as well, he published his autobiography in 1988,in Urdu, Khalid in his opening chapter gives the narration of the final day of departure from the Governor-General House  by Ghulam Mohammad, by 1955 even after manipulating the law and making Chief Justice uphold his decision of dissolving the Constituent Assembly. Iskander Mirza and Ayub khan felt that he must now leave, as he had served his end, so that day- the route from the Governor General  House till Clifton house of the daughter of Ghulam Mohammad was lined up on both sides by Army contingents and bands to bid him his final farewell. Iskander Mirza was seen hovering all over  & supervising all minor details as he was to take over-as the new Governor General, and as Ghulam Mohammad was made to sit in the limousine, Iskander told  A.B Khalid and an ADC to accompany the outgoing Governor General. While Iskander followed in the limousine. On reaching the House after getting salutes throughout the journey as he entered his daughter’s house; Ghulam Mohammad broke down and started weeping seeing the small room or his eventual fate. Dr.Khan Sahib and Ch. Mohammad Ali who had reached earlier stood at a respectable distance. However a faint victorious smile lingered over the face of Iskander Mirza who was constantly assuring him that all will be well and he would remain loyal to him, and cater for all his needs, and he need not worry, and that his decision of resigning was a good decision and in the ultimate National interests.

In the continuation to all this, he narrates how  this one time powerful man had called in Khawaja Nazimuddin  the Prime minister on an immediate  notice and dismissed him, as soon as he entered his office. As Khawaja left for his car Ghulam Mohammad had watched him go. Meanwhile all his escorts had been withdrawn in a pre-arranged move and the Flag of Pakistan also removed from his official car and only a driver remained to open his car door-and Khawaja Nizamuddin had been the Prime minister just-15 minutes back.

With passage of time and declassifications and new evidence emerging in shape of books, one finds that behind all these manipulations stood Iskander and Ayub till each met his own Fate.

A B Khalid further states that it was in early afternoon of 07 Oct 1958 that the personal servant [Abdul Sattar]of Iskander Mirza came with a urgent message for him and Nusrat- ud-din, as they both shared the same office that Sahibjee says that both of you be back in office by 5 pm as some urgent matters are in offing and need to be typed. Khalid adds that on reaching at 5 pm they both had tea and discussed normal issues and at around 6.30 pm walked in Major Gen. Sher Bhadaur with a brief case which he opened and started giving out drafts of the letters to be typed by both him and Nusrat[who was the Principle secretary of Iskander Mirza]and Gen. Sher Bhadaur sat on a chair not allowing any one to enter or receive any phone calls. To the extent that even carbon papers were supplied from his brief case. Meanwhile outside in the long corridor Iskander Mirza paced to and fro and chain-smoked and it was by 9.30 pm that typing ceased. The first paper was a proclamation’ in which the constitution stood abrogated National and Provincial Assemblies stood dissolved and the Cabinet dismissed. The second paper was the appointment of General Ayub Khan as the Chief Martial Law Administrator. The third paper dealt with personal messages to the vital Head of States. The Fourth was urgent Letters to Ambassadors of vital countries to visit on receipt of these letters immediately the President House [old Gov. Gen House].

After the typing had ceased and letters checked for any errors all three proceeded to the Military Secretary Office i.e Colonel Nawazish Ali. Shortly later walked in Iskander Mirza and checked the letters. Thereafter walked in Gen. Ayub khan accompanied by Gen. Burk and  Gen. Azam Khan all three saluted Iskander Mirza then Ayub khan said; ”Everything is okay’ Sir-Operation is complete”.

They all shook hands and congratulated each other over the flawless operation, on this note walked in five waiters each with Bottles of whiskey/soda and glasses. Iskander Mirza with a smile on his face after a few sips asked Gen. Ayub, ”Ayub, will I be alive tomorrow?”

Ayub Khan walked up to him and put his arm around his back and held him. The dinner was served at 11 pm and thereafter Gen Sher Bhadaur took Nusrat and Khalid away to their offices and shortly after this started a long queue of visitors, including the Ambassadors. Drinks flowed and cigar smoke hung heavy in the air while periodic heavy laughter rang in the hall ways till early morning hours.

[To be continued…]


Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 106 other followers