The Lost Territory of Pakistan: The Wakhan Corridor

By: Naveed Tajammal

(This is an Exclusive Pakpotpourri2 Article)

The Birth of the new Geographic entity of Afghanistan was based on global events as they started to unfold, and so the British Empires;’’ King Makers’’ from the turn of the 19th Century set about creating new States, by awarding them new names, and thereby delinking them from their past heritage, Khurassan, too met the same fate as did the Sind Valley, whose integral part it always had been, Sir. Thomas Holdich, writing in 1901 was correct when he confessed the same in his book,” The Indian Borderland’’., ’’We have contributed much to give a National Entity to that Nebulous Community which ‘’WE’’ call ‘’AFGHANISTAN’’(but which the Afghan, Never, CALL, by that name) by drawing a boundary all around it and elevating it into a position of a Buffer State, between ourselves and Russia, all this has been done at great expense, and with infinite pains……….’’.

In 1805,Napoleon,had declared war on Russia, and by 1807,Fateh Ali Shah of Persia, had accepted the French proposal ,’’To appoint an Army to march on India by the way of Kabul and Kandhar,’ ’The British, however succeeded in thwarting the French Alliance. However, the danger remained, for the future. So the British felt the need for a new Buffer State ,or ‘Corridors’  that led in to the British Indian Empire, From Persia as well from the North, so, Mountsuart Elphinstone,’ of the book fame, ’’An Account of Kingdom of Cabul’’ was sent to meet Shah Shuja in 1809,and a treaty was signed between the British and Cabul Kingdom, by terms of which French and other Europeans were to be rigorously excluded from the ‘Kingdom of Cabul’, However the rupture between, France and Russia, which occurred at this period, removed all fears of an invasion of India by the two powers. Then came the First Afghan War, with it came the threat Again from the Russian side, as by late 1830’s,the tentacles of the Russian Empire were being felt all over the Central Asian Chess Board. The Russian ‘’Menace’ was a cause for watchfulness & anxiety, though the British Boundary till then was limited to Cis-Sutlej Regions, the show of Flag,  the rationale of the first Afghan War, was because of a danger that, Russia was again becoming predominant at the court of Shah of Persia,a nd so a apprehension was felt by the British, that there may be a move in the ‘’Corridor’, Persia,  by then,was now demanding the return of its Old Provinces of HERAT,KANDHAR & KABUL. And the Russians were ready to help . From the Russian point of View, it was considered that if Persia, took ‘’HERAT’’, she would ultimately absorb Kandhar and Kabul. And that, through Persian Agency and without any cost whatever to the Russian Exchequer, a heavy Strain would be placed on Britian, to meet the new situation. This was seen, in the Persian Policy of the next twenty five  years,1832 till 1857, it was solely focused on capture of Herat. By now the Afghan Entity had been created at least on papers, the boundaries had yet to be drawn, all this was done to thwart any claim on the old provinces of Persia by Shah of Persia, with the backing of the Czar of Russia .Dost Mohammad of Kabul, was still not in full command of the new entity, so he appealed , for help from Lord AUCKLAND, the Viceroy of British India. The appeal was to allow him to take over the Trans-Indus regions, and thus force out Rangit Singh ,to remain confined in the CIS-INDUS and Trans-Sutlej belt, and a finale plea for weapons and cash to help him fight the Persians. The Brothers of Dost Mohammad –seeing, the change, in air, sent envoys to the Shah of Persia with Letters of Submission and a request to the Russians for an intervention. Both were pleased. The Russian sent a, Captian Vitavich, So started a new round of the Great Game, and with it came the First Afghan war as had been highlighted above with reasons why. The flexing of British Muscle power, though in vain, as was seen, The greatest disaster suffered by British Arms, in Asia till then, The Russian Empire continued its moves across by the Central Asian Chess board, by 1844, the Sea of Aral had been explored, a massive fort built on the mouth of SYR-DARAYA ,at AK MASJID, the Khanate of Kohkand fell in 1853,Taskent in 1865,Bokhara in 1868,and then, fell Samarkand, followed by Khiva, and soon the Russain were in Contact with old districts across the OXUS which had been part of Bokhara state now with Russians. The internal feuds between the rival candidates of Afghanistan continued meanwhile, Sher Ali was now installed on the throne of Kabul, and his relations with the British improved, as he met Lord Mayo in 1869 and was awarded a subsidy of  POUNDS 60,000/. And the work on Demarcation of the new Afghan state on Paper between two Empires took off, between Lord Granville of British Government and Prince Gortchakoff the Russian Ambassador in London, unknown were these things to Sher Ali sitting in Kabul, so between 17th October 1872 and 19th to 31st January 1873,a paper on the new Boundary had been drafted in London between the two representatives, the boundaries as drawn between Persia and Afghanistan and British India are not being discussed in this Article,

The new face of the state of Afghanistan on its North west and North East was to be composed of the following districts, to the North East, Badakhshan, and the District of WAHKHAN From old UPPER KASKAR STATE, the lower was declared by the British as CHITRAL. The old Turkistan now Afghan Turkistan, having the districts, of KUNDUZ,KHULM & BALKH, the new Northern Boundary between the empires would the OXUS river as it followed, a path, from the junction of the Kokcha river to the post of Khoja Saleh ,inclusive of the High Road from Bokhara ,to Balkh, the internal districts of AKCHA.SAR- EPUL,MAIMANA,SHIBARGAN and ANDKHUI. The latter was to be the Extreme Afghan frontier Possession, to the North West, the Desert beyond was to belong to independent tribes of the Turkomans. However this was the British Demand then,.In 1873, the Russains eventually Agreed on it but, not before a long period in which they objected to this NEW map of Afghanistan, as the Russains ,now the legal heirs to the old state boundaries of Bokhara felt cheated out of its Trans-Oxus territories, and also of other districts as they had grave reservations on the Writ of Amir Abdur Rehman of Kabul on them, in 1893, twenty  years hence from the date the final papers on the new face of Kingdom of Afghanistan had been drawn, when Amir ABDUR REHMAN of Kabul had tried to impose his Writ in the WAHKHAN ,IN THE greater interest of the British. His Forces had been soundly thrashed by the Czars Cossacks, at Somatash, on the banks of ALLCHUR river further north of Wahkhan .He had then realized how powerless he was to retaliate and so had refused to accept Wahkhan, as his new territory,subsequently, a larger money grant to the tune of RS. 18 lakhs, were  offered, to induce him to accept it, with promises of the British intervention if and when anybody tried to dislodge his forces. So a part of our Sindh Valley was taken from us.As stated earlier ,many new states had been created by the British as Buffers, some were front line & some the second line, to safeguard the Northern Gates to the Indian Empire, hence came in being another State, that of DOGRA KASHMIR. In 1846,a Hindu kingdom, but composed of then 90% Muslims, that will be discussed later on. Referring back to the WAHKHAN corridor, the object of this long arm in these high altitudes or on the roof of the world, as it was not much of a buffer, as it could be easily ridden in a hard days ride across from its extreme width. So it presented no vast physical obstacle to an advance of any sort, As that had been catered for earlier by creation of the new Kashmir state, that being the second line. WAHKHAN was a ‘’HEDGE’ as it were over which the CZAR of Russia could not step, without violating Afghanistan, and violation of Afghanistan was to be regarded as a ‘’CASUS BELLI’’.

Since the creation of the Kashmir state our people had been in a state of REVOLT, that by itself was a alarm, to the British ,or, its Policy Makers, the new Maha raja’s of the state like Abdur Rehman in Afghanistan tried to impose their writs, but revolts continued. British tried all methods to keep the situation in control. In 1882, fresh disturbances had been created by the ruler of upper Kaskar State, Pahlawan Bahaduar, who ruled Yasin, Kuh, Ghizer and Ashkuman ranges and lands, Hunza and Nagar inclusive, Mir Ali Mardan Shah held WAHKHAN,AND WAS ALSO RESISTING the Afghan writ, both got removed. Phalwan Bahadaur lost his state, while MIR Ali Mardan Shah, was compensated  with Ashkuman,and so in 1906,Yasin,Kuh,and Ghizer were made in one district. Mehtar Abdur Rehman, the  eldest  son of( Late) Pahelwan  Bahadaur, made its ruler. However Hunza,Nagar  and Chilas, old territories  of the late ruler were made independent of Kashmir ruler, vide Foreign Department letter number.1800 dated 24 July 1901.with express orders that, no official of Kashmir had any Suzerainty, over them, and were forbidden to interfere directly in their internal Administration, as they came directly under the Foreign office of the British Empire.

The second line Buffer State of Kashmir was created by a treaty dated 16th March 1846 signed at Amritsar. It had 10 Articles ,streamlining the yoke of the British State, through its British East India Company. the clauses like the amount of payment, limits of territories, arbitration ,not to hire or engage the services of any British subject, nor any subject of any European or AMERICAN state, without consent of the British, that the British Government will protect the state of the Maharaja, from external enemies, and the Maharaja acknowledges the Supremacy of British Government, and in token will pay, ONE  horse,12 perfect Shawl GOATS, here an Amendment took place, on 13 MARCH 1884,THAT, in Future the Maharaja will, ensure that, he will present instead of 12 GOATS, it would be 10 lbs of PASHM  in its natural state, as bought to Kashmir, from, LEH- 4lbs of Picked and Assorted black wool;4 lbs of ditto-ditto grey wool, ditto-ditto, white wool, and 1 lbs each of the three best qualities of white Yarn.

How humiliating could they be when the British wanted to be, such was the nose binding rule of the British on this Hindu Maharaja of the second line Buffer state, now with India.

Lastly our claim on the lost northern territory is very vital keeping in, view, the new geo political affairs, and by our right it should be returned back to our country, but as the verse of Oliver Wendell Homles describes exactly the men, who are needed to achieve this end:

A Time Like This Demands.

Great Hearts,strong minds,true faith, and willing hands;

Men whom the lust of office does not kill;

Men whom the spoils of office cannot buy;

Men who possess opinions and a will;

Men who have honor, men who will not lie.

(The writer has over 26 years of experience in Investigative Historical Research)  

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  • Laila  On August 8, 2010 at 11:44 am

    An excellent research paper. It took me two re reads to comprehend the magnanimity of what the writer states here:It were the British machinations that sold off Wakhan to now India.
    AND that is from where they SPY on us!!!!!!!!!!

  • Naeem Shaikh  On August 8, 2010 at 12:27 pm

    Apart from these territories, are we also going to loose our Northern Areas, which are and have become the exclusive domain of one sect of people, the Ismailis – not at all
    considered to be either entirely muslim, nor by any means even islamic by nature and by their traditions. so much so they are also called one of the lost tribes of Israel.
    Funnily, their role model is base on the “Man of the Mountains” a terrifying sub-sect which perfected the art of suicidal humans as weapons of ellimination of their enemies;
    practised even today by strangulating opponents via financial and economic deprivations, similar to not just wiping-out one person, but entire families enblock…!!!
    They have now creeped into and become extremely strong and powerful lobbies; not only in the financial markets and sectors, but in the banking, hospitality as well as the media industries of the country…almost all of them with dual nationalities. Now, where on earth would their loyalties lie…and all has happened and taken place right in front of not only our eyes, but also in front of the defenders of this country. The defenders are not only responsible for just external defence; but also for internal defence as well.
    “He who hold the purse, pulls the strings…” Your expert comments would be highly appreciated.
    With many thanks, wishes and regards, as ever

    • Naveed Tajammal  On August 9, 2010 at 5:05 am

      but naeem sahib remember the very creation of the present house of AGHA khan, is post first Afghan war.courtesy the BRITISH EMPIRE BUILDERS.

  • Shahid Rehman  On August 8, 2010 at 2:49 pm

    Well researched.

  • Rizwan  On August 8, 2010 at 3:11 pm

    Great research, but Naveed, do you think anyone will demand it back from Pakistan, or anyone from India will grant us the same? When India is in violation of a Indus Water Treaty 1960……….???

  • Inam Khan  On August 8, 2010 at 3:13 pm

    When was present day Afghanistan created and what is the basis our claim ?

    ………………………………………………………………………………………..Inam Khan

    • Pakistani  On August 8, 2010 at 11:49 pm

      Afghanistan was created in 1747. Though many Afghans pretend they existed before that and have decided to hijack the name of the Ariana region as their country’s “ancient name”

      • Naveed Tajammal  On August 9, 2010 at 4:49 am

        Ahmed shah in history is merely, firstly the Badshah e Qandhar, later onward after his repeated invasions and wealth,he liked to be refered as Badshah e Khurassan.and never as the Monarch of Afghanistan.No book of that period refers ever to the entity of any AFGHAN STATE, as we see on Map now.

  • Gh. Haidre  On August 8, 2010 at 3:14 pm

    A very interesting research article…!
    Yes, those were the times when so called kingdom of Cabul consisted of a limited area, ruled in the name only by the king sitting in Cabul, with a very loose arrangement with various territorial and tribal chiefs. These chiefs and the Kings could be made to give any concessions for appropriate sums of money. Only thing they would not accept at any cost was surrendering their territory because that would deprive them of the income in the shape of taxes etc. And of course, offer of additional land WITH a handsome monetary grant AND a guarantee of protection against any intervention by a third party, would have been a very happy situation for the King in Cabul.
    The reason why the British were dishing out these lands, as highlighted by Naveed, is very much understandable, ie, to create buffer zones between themselves and their dreaded enemies.
    Now there is some talk being heard about division of Afghanistan, as a possible measure to ensure peace in that country in the future. IF that happens (and even otherwise), perhaps it is time for us to AT LEAST sound our claim to the world, to this lost territory of ours. The British should be expected to support our such claim, on historical and moral grounds.

  • jaleel Rahman  On August 8, 2010 at 4:13 pm

    Good history but why the writer says our when Pakistan was not even there and it was a big game between the powers of that time.

    • Naveed Tajammal  On August 9, 2010 at 5:03 am

      It is ours because,our civilization pre dates the name pakistan,the sind valley in the historical geography is tied with the pamir knot.and as stated in the article, the british compenstated the ex-chief of wahkhan,by giving him,the ashkhuman region,adjoining wahkhan.when that was handed over to amir abdur rehman of the subject refered as historical geography of this region the names for centuries remained the same,that too i will high light.but the british changed them to disassociated us from our past.

  • The Editors  On August 8, 2010 at 4:37 pm

    With ref to Inam–the artifical state of “Afghanistan” was created by the British in 1893 when the Duran Line was demarcated to create a buffer between the British and Russian Empires.

    Afghanistan was established after the 1893 Durand Line Agreement between the Government of colonial British Empire (Pakistan was part of the British empire) and Afghan Amir Abdur Rahman Khan for fixing the limit of their respective spheres of influence. Rahman Khan controled only “Cabul” so the British gave him territory to control.

    You may want to read

    The artificial state of Afghanistan was constructed at the expense of Pakistani, Tajik, Iranian, and Uzbek territory.

    The Wakhan Corridor is Pakistani territory and should be returned to Pakistan.
    Pending final disposition, the Wakhan passes must immediately be opened.
    The Wakhan Corridor wil be used to built rail and road links to Fergana and Dushambe.

    Editor Rupee News

  • Shahid iqbal  On August 8, 2010 at 7:05 pm

    Dear Yasmeen Ali,


    I just want to coment about Mr Naveed s article ,Kashmir was not created by the British as a country ,they created a problem for kashir .Kashmir history is based on 5 thousand years. In geographical language Kashmir is known as 3 tier state,Jammu,Kashmir,Ladakh

    Kashmir History begins …3180 BC-13224 BC ,four thousand & five hundred years kashmir was ruled by Hindu Rajas

    From 1325 Ad to 1819 Ad ,Kashmir was ruled by Muslim kings.

    In March 1819 Maharaja Ranjit singh occupied kashmir .In march 1846 Britishers sold kashmir to maharaja Gulab singh the ruler of Jammu for 75 Lakh rupees

    Apart from this bit ,Mr Naveeds article is interesting.

    I have not opened the link yet ,have caught Flue ,will do it later on Inshaallah.

    Take care.

    Prof.S Iqbal

    • Naveed Tajammal  On August 9, 2010 at 5:49 am

      SHAHID sahib,
      Agreed that it was a problem created for the muslims of Kashmir, when in 1846 the state of Dogra hindu was created by the british as a second line buffer state,however as records show there were a number of other smaller ones too created, inbetween, Afghanistan,in the north west and till kashmir and also inbetween wahkhan and to the north east i.e to the past history of kashmir, kindly do not just read KALANA’S version as given in the rajatanagri,hindu brahman now pre date the book to 1200 AD,the book is a bench mark,for proving hindu religion existed ages back, as stated in the book, or interpreted by them,but remember hinduism is POST -ISLAM, EARLIER in our regions till we went in the islamic fold we remained mostly buddhist,as were the people of Afghanistan,to the north in BALKH regions they were followers of ZARTHUST, the naubahar temple (balkh) whose keepers, later became the house of BARAMACIDES, in the rule period of Haroon ur Rashid,even the’sanskrit’ the reason why it has been termed as an artifical language is because it was the work of renegade buddhist monks of Naghar,(SOMANATH REGION) and the mazdakhite dasturs, who revived the old AVESTA, in a new shape, it is infact parsi, the language in vogue in the courts of the ‘HAKAMANISH’ dynastic rule of ZeMeaN -E -IRAN.when parsi was written in religious transcriptions it became ‘avesta’ as pahalvi written in similar conditions becomes ZAND -PAHALVI.even if you closely study the script of deva nagari and ours of sindh valley which hindu by contempt call ”lundi’ or tail-less,you find, what i refere too, deva nagri is based on our so called lundi’ script with the cobra hood,remember RESCUE PASSAGES created over a period of time, not challanged by our wise men, allowed the hindu to play havoc with our past.history has to re-written,for our future generations.

  • Syed Ataur Rahman  On August 8, 2010 at 7:10 pm

    Dear Tajammal Sb,
    I read your aticle with rapt attention. The unfolding of events in this important region is mesmarizing. How can we comment on such a masters writing? You give us the British mindset, always conniving through diplomacy, cunning, bribe and as a last resort force. We are children in their hands and quite illeterate except for people like you who educate us. Keep doing this splendid work. It was great reading.
    best regards
    Syed Ataur Rahman

  • S Turkman  On August 8, 2010 at 7:30 pm

    My comments are inserted below.
    1-In 1805, Napoleon,had declared war on Russia, and by 1807,Fateh Ali Shah of Persia, had accepted the French proposal ,’’To appoint an Army to march on India by the way of Kabul and Kandhar,’

    TURKMAN: But British ruled just some parts of Indian in those days, not the whole Sub Continent. The British did not rule Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, NWFP, FATA, Kashmir and a big part of Southern India.

    2-The Russian ‘’Menace’ was a cause for watchfulness & anxiety, though the British Boundary till then was limited to Cis-Sutlej Regions, the show of Flag, the rationale of the first Afghan War, was because of a danger that, Russia was again becoming predominant at the court of Shah of Persia, and so a apprehension was felt by the British, that there may be a move in the ‘’Corridor’, Persia, by then,was now demanding the return of its Old Provinces of HERAT, KANDHAR & KABUL.

    TURKMAN: Missing here is, Ranjeet Singh, who had defeated Afghans in Sindh, Baluchistan, NWFP and FATA. Ranjeet Singh had sacked Peshawar that used to be the largest Afghan city in 1834 before attacking FATA and Kashmir.

    3-The appeal was to allow him to take over the Trans-Indus regions, and thus force out Rangit Singh, to remain confined in the CIS-INDUS and Trans-Sutlej belt, and a finale plea for weapons and cash to help him fight the Persians.

    TURKMAN: Its a lie that Ranjeet Singh worked for British also. He did, what he always did. It had nothing to do with British. Also missing in this story is, Russian Army that had reach Chitral in 1857 to help Indians fight their revolt against the British. That Army had gone back, when it heard that Punjabis are getting ready to fight against it and hundreds of thousands of them (mostly Moslims) have been inducted in to British Army.
    4-he Russian sent a, Captian Vitavich, So started a new round of the Great Game, and with it came the First Afghan war as had been highlighted above with reasons why. The flexing of British Muscle power, though in vain, as was seen, The greatest disaster suffered by British Arms, in Asia till then,

    TURKMAN: Who were British Arms?
    5-TURKMAN: Missing part is, British had defeated Sikh Empire of Punjab in late 1860’s and had started conquering Sikh Territories that Ranjeet Singh had won after that. By 1870, British Army, mostly made of Punjabi Moslims was already in areas of Afghanistan.
    6-TURKMAN: Missing is by 1880 British had consolidated their control from Delhi to Afghanistan. British had nothing to do with forming present state of Afghanistan. It became, what Czar of Russia could not take. The Proof is, an Afghan King had kicked Persians now called Iranians out of Bamiyan and surrounding region in 1920’s despite that British had controlled the area west of it in present Iran. In 1890, Russia had annexed Azerbaijan and what is presently northern Iran linking to present Turkmenistan.
    7-TURKMAN: It has never been Dogra Kashmir because Dogra people are from Nepal, not Kashmir. The Hindu Maharajah of Kashmir had recruited those very poor people from Nepal because he could not trust his own people’s loyalty in his Army. He had gotten rid of every other month revolts by crushing them with brutal Dogra Mercenaries.
    8-In 1846, a Hindu kingdom, but composed of then 90% Muslims, that will be discussed later on.

    TURKMAN: Not true. Moslims were never 90% of Kashmir population in the history of the world though by that time Moslims were majority of people of Kashmir. Moslims were 65% of population of present Indian Kashmir in 1947 but not now because they were forced to move to India by Moslim Militants there getting help from Pakistan. Pandit Nehru had agreed on plebiscite thinking he could add enough Moslims to his side to win in plebiscite but learning about duplicitous nature of his own Kashmiris, he had changed his mind.
    9-TURKMAN: British had nothing to do with creation of Kashmir because it was formed, when Emperor Aurangzeb had destroyed central control of Mogul Empire. Revolts had nothing to do with Kashmiris being anti British. Revolts were common in that region and south of it up to Multan in Punjab and west of Multan up to Iran and in whole of what is now Afghanistan. The revolt leaders though had always sought alliance with the British to consolidate their power in their region. This is how it used to be. Rest is all B.S.
    10-Lastly our claim on the lost northern territory is very vital keeping in, view, the new geo political affairs, and by our right it should be returned back to our country, but as the verse of Oliver Wendell Homles describes exactly the men, who are needed to achieve this end:

    TURKMAN: So, this formerly Afghan Author, who does not even know good English is now a Research Scholar and he is demanding that Kashmir, FATA, NWF Province of Pakistan should be returned to present Afghanistan.

    • Naveed Tajammal  On August 9, 2010 at 11:36 am

      Dear Turkman,
      Apparently your observations,on my article are well founded as per your perception and comprehension-my request before i state my point is read more on the subject before you give your version of the sequence of events,all the same i am answering all your queries one by had mentioned that British did not rule ,punjab,sind,baluchistan,nwfp,fata,kashmir…etc,in those days,…,NOW i had clearly stated the same, which you quoted when you give the extract from my article,i had written,”…..though british boundary till then,was limited to CIS-SUTLEJ regions….Kindly see a will explain what this means,I.E, it means,british were operating from Ludhiana & Jalandhar.or east of sutlej, CIS- means that !
      Secondly,rangeet’s, extreme south on the trans-indus was Kashmore,cis-indus, across kashmore, and cis sutlej across multan was the Bahawalpur state.kindly note that rangeet did,” threaten,” but never ventured in sindh, baluchistan or else where.As to peshawar,he entered peshawar for the first time in 1818 and Not 1834 as stated by you ! kindly read ,”History of Sikhs’ by Joseph Davey Cunningham, the edition of 1849, page 158.
      Thirdly,rangeet had signed a number of good will treaties with british, i will forward you details if need be, as to a russain army in chitral in 1857, you are off your mark, russain armies came to BOKHARA in 1868.SEE a map, Chitral is below oxus,then is a mountain chain !!your 4th observation on the term,”british arms’ it means the british armies, in old times armies fought with swords, bows and arrows & spears, arms means the, use of arms to fight.your 5th observation,is again wrong, sikh kingdom fell in 1849 ! and not in 1860’s.your 6th observation,you have not read the article at all ! but written a rejoinder,in this article i have stated clearly how afghanistan was made and the reasons why,as to throwing out the iranians in 1920’s, you are mistaken, are you aware who Habib ullah Kalakhani was ?? he was a TAJIK,and he in 1929 got rid of Amanullah.and was the king who sat on kabul throne till the british got him out,using Nadir khan ,the father of Zahir shah.Are you aware of who are the TAJIK, they one of the oldest race of the land now called afghanistan, yes they are iranian.your 7th observation is again wrong,the term DOGRA, is from the twin lakes of old, the ”dau-gara’h.’ area,a crater created these two lakes,the people who inhabited it are called dogra, nepal has the gurkha.gulab singh was a dogra.your 10th observation,kindly read the census report of British india,1941,it clearly states the composition of population, the figure of 90% is correct.please read if you can, the treaty of 16th march 1846, and the notes attached, the british demanded the same,in lieu of the GOATS.your 11th observation that i am an AFGHAN AUTHOR is bewildering !!!as to my bad english,well it is NOT my language !! so i am glad that, it, is BAD.

      • ayesha  On August 9, 2010 at 1:10 pm

        Turkman ,should have read the article before he gave his view points,anyway thank you naveed for clearing the mist.

    • sadia hameed  On August 9, 2010 at 2:08 pm

      Turkman,you did read it,but your own reading needs a lot of improvement,you must read that is an advice.

  • Pakistani  On August 8, 2010 at 11:44 pm

    Very interesting. This should be a blow to all Afghans who spread lies against Pakistan and the Durand Line Treaty.

  • Pakistani  On August 8, 2010 at 11:50 pm

    You guys should also google search Afghan mirror and check out the first result that comes up.

  • Sqn Ldr S. Ausaf Husain (Retd)  On August 9, 2010 at 3:20 am

    The article and research by Mr Naveed Tajammal is commendable and very well researched. I read it twice and enjoyed. I am thankful to YAA for creating such an interesting, informative , educative and literary activities for the members of her prestigious Pakpotori Group. However, regarding Kashmir I wrote a letter in DAWN newspaper in 2008 titled ‘Kasmir tragedy’ which was published in DAWN on
    I would therefore like to put is here as well:

    Kashmir Tragedy
    By Sqn. Ldr. S. Ausaf Husain (Retd)

    DAWN: November 23, 2008

    “NEARLY 162 years ago on March 16, 1846 the valley of Kashmir alongwith 90 % overwhelming Muslims population were sold out to a Dogra Hindu Raja named Maharaja Golab Singh by the East India Company for a sum of 75 lacs as a reward for Golab Singh’s help to the Britishers against the Sikhs and the Afghans. Alas this good guesture on the part of the selfish power brokers of the company’s rule has plunged the life of 10 million Muslims of Kashmir today into hell and the once called Heaven on the Earth, Kashmir is no more heaven but hell.

    In January 1947, Maharaja Hari Singh of Kashmir during his meeting with Lord Mountbatten the last viceroy of India told him that “I neither want to accede to Pakistan nor want to join India, I wish to be independent”. Under such circumstances a plebiscite or referendum in Kashmir before 14th August 1947, should have been adopted in Kashmir by Lord Mountbatten, this should have saved the ongoing blood-bath in Kashmir for the last six decades.

    The Maharaja of Kashmir was afraid that joining either Pakistan or India would result in his dethronement. Kashmir had signed a standstill agreement with Pakistan to allow petrol and other supplies to continue arriving into Kashmir through Gurdaspur. The Boundary Commission, however, placed Gudaspur on the Indian side of the border, solely, it seemed, to give India control over the Punjab-Kashmir road.

    The Muslim peasants in Kashmir’s southern province of Poonch revolted against the Dogra Rajput landowners. Many tribsmen, in an almost millennial mood of excitement over the victory of Muslim nationhood, began to pour into Kashmir in September and early October to liberate their Muslim brother from the Hindu Maharaja. Pakistan decided to stop further shipments of supplies to the Kashmiri ruler.

    On 23 October some 5,000 armed Afridi, Waziri, and Mahsud tribesmen, in Pakistan army truks crossed the Kashmir border, seized Muzaffarabad and headed towards Srinagar. India tried again to get the Maharaja to sign the accession papers. He was still undecided, but his Prime Minister requested India for military assistance. After the Indian troops had been airlifted into Srinagar, the Maharaja, who had fled to his winter palace at Jammu, signed the accession papers on 26 October 1947.

    The Quaid-i-Azam ordered Pakistan army troops to move to Jammu and Srinagar, but he withdrew his order when Field Marshal Auchinleck, Montgomery and the British acting Commander-in-Chief threatened that all British officer would be withdrawn from the Pakistan army. The Quaid-e-Azam protested that Pakistan should have been informed of the British-Indian decision to airlift troops, and should have been included in a joint action to restore peace. Although the British had tolerated the Indian invasion of Junagadgh and co-operated in the Indian invasion of Kashmir, but they blocked Pakistani action in Kashmir.

    On 22 December 1947, the Indian Prime Minister Nehru charged that tribal ‘raiders’ of Kashmir ‘have free transit through Pakistan…Food and other supplies are also secured from Pakistan’. On the 31st, India submitted a formal complaint to the UN, and on 15 January 1948, Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan filed Pakistan’s cross-complaint. But despite several Treaties concerning Kashmir issue including Sino-Pak Agreement 1963, Tashkent Declaration 1966 and Simla Agreement 1972 and UN intervention fighting in Kashmir is continuing and situation has become bad to worse.

    Now the scene in Kashmir is taking a new turn as the US President elect Mr Barak Obama is impressed with the ideas of his adviser Bruce Riedel who retired from the CIA in 2006 that resolution in Kashmir is essential to fight terrorism. It is pertinent to note that the Muslim freedom fighter’s struggle in Kashmir is now being given the colour of ‘terrorism’ slowly may be to justify inclusion of Kashmir among the targets of war on terror.
    Mr Riedel—and now his boss Mr Obama —are basically talking about ending Pakistan’s excuse of the lingering dispute of Kashmir which stands in the way of accepting Washington’s desire to see India walk all over Pakistan, open direct trade links to Afghanistan and Central Asia and play a major role in securing Afghanistan and the region in the face of Russian and Chinese influence”.


    S. Ausaf Husain
    Sqn Ldr (Retd)
    Freelance Security Educator & Consultant

    • pakpotpourri2  On August 9, 2010 at 4:41 am

      Dear Sir
      Thank you for your kind words. Naveed Tajammal’s research is original, he has spent years and years of hard work & sweat . Such research which is a “cross country run” must be brought forth.
      Warm Regards

  • Sqn Ldr S. Ausaf Husain (Retd)  On August 9, 2010 at 3:33 am

    Comment already offered and posted above.

  • Habib  On August 9, 2010 at 5:36 am

    Incredible research, intimidating analysis, challenging conclusion.
    Our history as I had known it, and as I was told all along, was
    nothing but scattered pieces of a complex jigsaw puzzle to me so far.
    Naveed has put the pieces together in this article, and for me it is
    my first bridge to our past history. Everything seems to fall in place
    now. I salute Naveed.

    After pondering over the nuggets of history in the article, thoughts
    and questions from a hitherto unfamiliar dimension start racing
    through one’s mind. Does it mean we need to recreate Pakistan ? Our
    history indeed needs rewriting. Should not our leaders have had
    lessons in history before launching the movement for a separate
    homeland based on a seemingly superficial ideology that had no feet to
    stand on ? Historical facts, as brought to the fore now by Naveed,
    point to the fact we could have used a much more robust ideology and
    much stronger argument for creation of a homeland much bigger ,
    unified and cohesive. A lost opportunity ? Was our present geography a
    quick fix, based in expediency in the first place, and should be used
    NOW as the launch pad for realization of our real dream…the emergence
    of greater Sind ?

    Naveed seems to be leading us all, and guiding us towards that higher
    goal. A bold undertaking on all counts.
    And as he rightly concludes in poetic mode , we need those
    extraordinary MEN in their shining armors to deliver the holy grail we
    lost many moons ago.

    Where are those magnificent heroes ??????


    • Naveed Tajammal  On August 9, 2010 at 11:43 am

      DEAR HH,

  • Asad Rehman  On August 9, 2010 at 7:02 am

    Before we start talking of reclaiming Kashmir of the Wakhan Corridor we need some introspection and look at what we have done with what we had. We lost the Bengalis and have seriously created a rift amongst the Baloch. No matter the International conspiracies. Had we been true to ourselves these would not have mattered. Today we are 10th of the list of failed states index…and our distrust of the Government is at 85%. Unless we do not have the Will to fix our current state, we will never be able to regain what was ours, whether justified or not.

  • hina khan  On August 9, 2010 at 1:17 pm

    A well worded article,we should focus more on our past,that will help us unite.

  • Usman Khalid  On August 9, 2010 at 2:17 pm

    Dear Naveed,

    This is timely and visionary research vitally needed for us in Pakistan to shift focus from Hind to Central Asia. While claims on basis of monarchs and their conquests are generally unacceptable, the region of Sindh and Central Asia have historical, cultural and religious links which bind them more closely than any other regions in the world. That Central Asia is landlocked and has only recently escaped the Russian grip makes it the duty of Afghanistan and Pakistan to consolidate this region. Afghanistan must transform from a buffer to a bridge between Pakistan and Central Asian Republics. As Abidullah Jan wrote in Authentic Voices of South Asia,” The Union of Pakistan and Afghanistan is the policy of neither but it is the destiny of both”. And India must be kept out of Afghanistan to avoid the replication of the ‘Great Game’. It must be the quest of theses Turco-Aryan peoples to establish a union of the ten states in the ECO – Turkey, Iran, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan,Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. Without such a union, they would continue to be pawns in other peoples games.

    Usman Khalid
    Secretary General of Rifah Party of Pakistan

  • naveed tajammal  On August 9, 2010 at 2:20 pm

    Very well said sir,
    I think it is about time,the awareness aspect amongst our neighbours should be steped up,
    and the past boundaries redefined,as we see from north africa to the east, british ‘king makers’ had created states to serve their ends, the legacy lives hence the turmoil,the need of rebonding in our own larger interest is a must,especialy with the indian multi headed Cobra trying to establish itself as a Golbal power.

    Naveed Tajammal,

  • Zubair  On August 9, 2010 at 2:31 pm

    An excelent piece of research. However, the, of the 5 conditions mentioned in the last para, do our rulers pass just one–any one???????? I do wish we had some educated people in our Govt much less honest and patriotic. Those who do not remember and preserve nation’s history, tend to become history.

    • naveed tajammal  On August 9, 2010 at 5:00 pm

      Well not exactly Zubair sahib,as i had quoted the verse, i had also given a indication, that, to achieve the end we would , need,people as required in the verse.As and when they surface, the leadership crisis will be over.and so shall we claim back what was ours.

  • The Editors  On August 9, 2010 at 4:12 pm

    Dr. Shahid Iqbal:

    Kashmir was Buddhist before it was “Hindu”. Brahamanism destroyed the Buddhists centers of learning and massacred the Buddhists forcing them to convert. Brahmanism tried to absorb Buddhism into Hinduism–Buddhist in Korea, Japan, Lanka do not accept this forced attempted assimilation.

    Even Kalhana’s Rajatarangini has discussed the wholesale massacre of Buddhists in Kashmir.

    There is no evidence of a “Civilization” in Kashmir in 3500BC. The IVC was not Hindu. they ate beef, buried their dead, did not worship the Hindu pantheon, used a pictographic language, did not know the horse, did not write Sanskrit, wrote right to left–were known as Melhulans in Urr and Sumer at the time of Hazrat Musa

    Bharati history has been manufactured by British rulers like James Princep, William Mortimer, Will Durant and William Jones who came up with fake artifacts which have since been discredited even by Bharati historians. Names like, Chanakya, Ashoka etc are myth. There is no written material in Sanskrit prior to `300 Ad. Even Vedas are from 700 AD.

    Editor Rupee News

  • Ubaid  On August 9, 2010 at 6:06 pm

    An exciting read Naveed Sahib. Thank you for the enlightening article.

  • Rais  On August 9, 2010 at 6:12 pm

    A good lesson in history.
    But ARE we in the position to demand the Corridor?
    We are hardly able to hold on to what we have?

  • Aquarias  On August 9, 2010 at 6:16 pm

    Naveed ,
    I think soon you will have to sprout a beard , if you continue to write with the passion of Tolstoy!
    You have all the abilities and the zest , to write like him, while growing a beard as a bonus , which will further add luster to your charismatic personality!
    while writing of historic events , should not a scholar like you,gradually become more dispassionate, and understand the reasons of what happened from the perspective of the empire builders. Reasons which you already know, and are well aware of, and which you cannot hold against them…………. just because you are the Indus person!
    Are we not today as a nation , indulging in a very complex and risky game to keep the enemies at the gate .Is not our unspoken support for the Pushtu elements in Afghanistan , similar to and like the creation of a human Wakhan, if not a geographical Wakhan, transcending all mountains , and boundaries if you may .
    The division of German , and Russian territories after the first world and those of Poland and Czechoslovakia during the second world war were similar attempts , by the respective players ,though short lived .
    Even the modern empires like the USA, have their Monroe doctrines , while we at a micro level have indulged ourselves and fostered, areas like ‘Fata’ as buffer zones.
    As regards your wish and desire linked with Wakhan, i do not think that a nation which lost half its area within the first 25 years of its life span , and is today struggling to keep itself intact , has the dynamic leadership , energy or the will to implement what you are asking………………. or does it ?

    • naveed tajammal  On August 10, 2010 at 6:27 am

      Dear sir,No thank you i would, rather stay away from the beard part,it is not ,the,question of , to be dispassionate, but object of these write ups is to create awareness amongst our well read class who decides our fate & makes policies.As to the Games played by the players of any time span,well that is their prerogative,and has been the story narrated time and again in the World History,the players played and created a balance of power to meet their needs of that time,WAHKHAN too was part of the same move, as was the creation of the entity called, ”AFGHANISTAN”,but the point here is, that, the union jack no longer flutters,and nor does BRITTANY rule the WAVES, in fact such is her sorry state of affairs ,that she is dying to sell her prized possession,the latest ”Elizabeth Class-Aircraft Carrier to india,which had been the purpose of her,”David Camerons’ visit ,and his subsequent Harsh Harangue on us !
      The true Leaders and the sole Leadership, always emerges from Chaos and Confusion,as has been seen in the world History, so we need not worry on that Account.

  • Aquarias  On August 10, 2010 at 11:35 am

    Naveed, trust me you may look more handsome with a beard , for a starter try a false one!
    Trust me wearing a false one for some time , will not be even be noticed, as most of them have grown beards, which are mostly false !!
    As regards the British prime minister’s remarks, the content does not bother me, as it good to know the mindset of a friend, who is also a member of NATO’s strategic alliance . What bothers me is the location of the statement , as the place from where it was issued makes it more of a threat than a statement . The likely course will be ,more and similar such statements , one and then perhaps an ultimatum, backed up by the greatest and closest ally and friend the USA.

  • Dr Babur  On August 10, 2010 at 4:09 pm

    Dear Yasmeen,

    I read the article on the WAKHAN Corridor by Naveed Tajammal about 2 days back as I was not in office due to the unprecedented floods in the South East Punjab in areas of KOT ADU, DERA DEEN PANA and LIYYAH where I had gone for relief work.

    Now coming back to the article what the article says is history and research of the writer and already much has been said on it.

    I would like to comment on the present day scenario of the GEO political and GEO strategic importance of the WAKHAN Corridor.

    Many of your writers have commented that this area should be taken over by Pakistan as it is / was a part of Pakistan.

    My question is HOW?

    It will not be given on a plate to us like KASHMIR, SIACHEN or SIR CREEK.

    This time I took an expedition like minded people to see the BROGHIL festival which is the opening of Pakistan into the WAKHAN Corridor and on to TAJIKISTAN the events of the expedition will not be discussed by me at present.

    What I must say that many of writers have emphasized that these passes must be opened.

    There are 3 important passes which give us a easy access into the WAKHAN Corridor they are the NOWA PASS in MOMAND Agency, the ARUNDO PASS going from GARM CHASMA, in the Chitral valley into Nooristan into Afghanistan but these are further and indirect access to the WAKHAN Corridor.

    The most important of all these passes are the and DURA PASS via ZUPU ZARKHOON and BROGHIL PASS. these passes give us a direct access into the WAKHAN Corridor and on to TAJIKISTAN.

    The other passes which give inlet into the KISHMANJA valley are the chilangi pass and Karumbar pass.

    Similarly there are other passes like Kilik pass, Mintaka Pass and Parpak Pass but these open from the Hunza state (Valley) into CHINA.

    Now What I would to emphasize is that from Chitral to BUNNI to MASTOOJ to BREP to GHAZIN to LASHAT and on to BROGHIL is hardly a distance of 240 kilo meters. But the time taken to travel this distance is about 3 days.

    First by JEEP to MASTOOJ 8 – 9 hours and then on to KISHMANJA by JEEP 14 hours and then onwards on horse back and trek for about another 8-10 hours to TERI-DAST and finally to BROGHIL at the height of 14300 feet.
    An important feature of BROGHIL / TERI -DAST is that it is the only place in the world where polo is played on the back of YAKS.

    The conditions of the road the hazards and impediments on the way again will not be discussed but what I want to emphasize here is that through the WAKHAN corridor give us the shortest road link to the Central Islamic States and on to the TUNDRA region.

    Opening of this route will make the GAS and Natural resources of the Central Islamic States and cross border trade available to us which will be mutually beneficial for Pakistan………………………………. AS we are Dependant on GAS from IRAN to overcome our energy problems by 2015. which may face UN / USA sanctions very soon……

    The idea of this comment is to apprise my fellow bloggers of the Geo strategic importance of Pakistan and what the future planner of Pakistan must do in the long run…………………..

    I would like to interact with other fellow bloggers who would like to be a part of my expedition to this area again in July 2011.

    Dr. Babur Zahiruddin
    Social Activist

  • naveed tajammal  On August 10, 2010 at 4:56 pm

    Dear Dr.Babar,
    Thankyou for your feedback,it was a pleasure to know that you are well conversant with the lay of land.As to your Question how is the Objective to be achieved well, that is for our Strategic analysist’s ,to decide, the job of a writer is to high light a fact.

    • Dr. Babur Zahiruddin  On August 12, 2010 at 4:01 pm

      Thank you very much for your feed back

      There is hardly any thing to add from my side as regards the strategic importance of this territory ………………..

      Much has been deliberated and discussed by your fellow bloggers…
      What I would like to emphasis that the logistics of the road conditions into the WAKHAN corridor should be improved by the NHA and not by the KP Govt.

      Let it be another KKH like road connecting Pakistan and Tajikistan

      When we can give corridor to Afghan transit trade why cant we have a corridor on a reciprocal basis…
      As regards our strategic planners the less I say about them the better it will be……….
      I am looking for sponsors for the next expedition to the WAKHAN corridor and through the courtesy of this blog I would like put a request for the Same…

      Dr. Babur Zahiruddin
      Social Activist

  • naveed tajammal  On August 10, 2010 at 5:04 pm

    Dear Dr.Babar,
    It was a pleasure to know that you are well acquainted with,the lay , of the land,as to your query as to how we can reclaim it, well that will be the JOB of our strategic ,analyst,the JOB of a writer is to But highlight a FACT.

  • SHWEBO  On August 12, 2010 at 4:41 am

    It is pleasure to read Naveed Tajammal’s work as you rarely get such well researched,concise and to the point write ups these days. Now a days writers, analysts and strategists are churning out run of the mill material for public consumption commenting on ongoing events but surely and honestly Naveed stands head and shoulders above all of our present days analysts, strategists and so called researchers and someone has rightly described him our time’s Tolstoy.. off course minus flowing beard. Well done and keep us educating , no doubt you are a true Indus person.

  • Dr. Babur Zahiruddin  On August 12, 2010 at 4:10 pm

    Thank you very much for your feed back

    There is hardly any thing to add from my side as regards the strategic importance of this territory ………………..

    Much has been deliberated and discussed by your fellow bloggers…
    What I would like to emphasis that the logistics of the road conditions into the WAKHAN corridor should be improved by the NHA and not by the KP Govt.

    Let it be another KKH like road connecting Pakistan and Tajikistan

    When we can give corridor to Afghan transit trade why cant we have a corridor on a reciprocal basis…
    As regards our strategic planners the less I say about them the better it will be……….
    I am looking for sponsors for the next expedition to the WAKHAN corridor and through the courtesy of this blog I would like put a request for the Same…

    Social Activist

    • naveed tajammal  On August 13, 2010 at 3:16 am

      Dr. Babar,
      An excellent proposition, the state should ask for a transit route ,linking KKH,
      through our , OLD lands now with the Afghan,after its annexation by them on the prompting of the British.

  • Muhammad Hamid  On January 26, 2015 at 1:06 pm

    I red almost all commits and i need some friends who are capable to research about the point where Pakistan is just 13/ KM from Tajikistan. I suggest Pakistan ,s policy makers to sign an agreement with Afghanistan to take the control that particular point where Tajikistan is very near to us. I know it is not easy ,but if we will successfully do it we will really get unbelievable benefits by trade with all central Asian states.

  • Ramia  On May 9, 2015 at 7:26 am

    I never understood the clash between America & Russia, could anyone help in that? Please!


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