The Sardars of Balluchistan : Are they Balluch?

This is a Pakpotpourri Exclusive

By: Naveed Tajammal

In 1910a Scottish-American Andrew Carnegie made his fortune in the ‘Steel Industry.’ He left a $10 million Endowment for international peace-which is the fore-runner of other Carnegie related ventures, However, whatever his intentions had been, and whatever the Endowment ended up creating  are two different aspects, The Carnegie Journalist program was launched in 1974,though with an outward image to anticipate ‘Near-Horizon’ problems, but, in reality it was to induct journalists from world over to create a hype and to keep a check on the Soviets (USSR) global moves. However, the area of influence expanded to include areas where the Americans wanted a hype created.

Hence started the ‘Awareness of the Baluchistan issue’. To quote one example only, Selig Harrison was appointed to Head the Journalistic programme & the first book” In Afghanistan’s Shadow, Baluch Nationalism & Soviet Temptations” published by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace by Selig Harrison in 1981 .

The British legacy had left their created Sardars, who while retaining their feudalistic powers wanted to gain the political legitimacy as well. They followed the policy of what is mine is mine and what is yours( of the people of their tribes) is also mine! The royalties taken as concessions technically for the welfare of the people, within the tribal setups, but spent by the Sardars as their own bounty, while the poor people had no recourse but move in a exodus, from the regions, as is seen in the last over 100 years, to seek a living elsewhere.

The tribes of the Sindh Valley Basin have been in a constant state of movement for the last 1600 years or so. Natural calamities, plagues and wars took their toll. The transformation from one major tribal setup to another had been a question of survival.

The geographic boundaries which Pakistan was thrust with were legacy of our past rulers, though with reference to region under study its bulk area came affiliated with either old Alor or Multan Administrative boundaries, Even in the Jam Nizam ud din Nandah period,(1461-1508). In the west, till Bolan inclusive of the Kaachi Plains was the part of the throne of Sindh. As were the Tal-Chotiali, Chacha,and Barkhan regions, wherein come the present Mari and Bugti areas. It was in Akbar’s time that Qandhar province limits were extended till Duki. Rest being part of Multan Subah ,as was Bolan and Kaachi areas .

The areas were well populated and fertile, with Sareiki speaking people, when Naseer Khan Barrohi was given these areas in 1740, for the services rendered. He pushed out the old people and transplanted them with people of his own Confederacy, the Eastern passes of the Roh- e -Suleiman Range that  had been gateways of Trade, since Ancient Times, In the Mughal era with opening of Khyber pass, the majority of Trade routes suffered, the cause, being the Movements of Bayazids , Ansari, heretics and expansion of Safavid’s in the East.

This brings us to the most pertinent question : is the present head of Bugti tribe and its clans actually Baluchi ???

For that a study of the Notes on the Balluchi , Barrohi and the Sindhi tribes should suffice.

Immediately after the creation of Baluchistan entity by the British, the Government ordered that the data be made of the Ethnic composition of various tribes of the region and inter-related ones, all the Mukhtiars and Mahalkars, in the revenue departments of the districts concerned were ordered.

(Members of Bugti tribe chant slogans in favor of their demands during a protest demonstration at Karachi press club-PPi). Picture published:

The reports compiled was from the communications histories, manuscripts, and the popular oral accounts which also covered profession of various tribes, matrimonial and other related customs, were submitted to Dr. U. M. Daudpota, Member Sindh Public Service Commission, and published in 1901.

The excerpts of the report state (p-26/27),covering the Bugti tribe in January 1890,on the recommendation of Robert Sandeman; Shahbaz Khan was conferred with the title of a Nawab. He was also later given a large tract of land on the Jamrau Canal for rendering assistance during the outbreak of the HUR in 1896/1897.Here without going in the details of the 24 Sept or clans of Bugti Confederacy, the report states, that the Chief of the tribe is Nawab Shahbaz Khan Rahejo Bugti, son of Ghulam Murtaza Khan Rahejo Bugti, A popular account says that Rahejo or more commonly called Rahuja, are from the Major Sindhi tribal set up of the ‘Samma’,to which the great ancestor of the present Bugti Chief belonged and that by Association with the Baluchi’s and settlement in the old Bugti hills and streams his descendants became Bugti Baluch. If we study the Samma,tribal Sept’s/clans which number in all 766,we find Raheja, very much so part of their entity (pages-44 to 53,and for more details in minor off shoots, pages 89 to 97 ).

The writer has 28 years of experience in investigative historical research.

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  • Average Joe Bodybuilder  On February 20, 2012 at 11:13 am

    I remember an email received from bugti “sardar” who said that for baluch’s to make their independence legitimate, the baloch’s should leave islam and convert to hinduism. since pakistan was created in the name of islam, to leave islam would make their independence possible. this tells me a few things.
    1. if the email is legitimately from a “sardar”, this tells you how uneducated and stupid the mindset of the sardars truly are.
    2. if the email is not from a sardar, but from someone of the bugti tribe, it tells you how brainwashed some of them are.
    3. if the email is not from a sardar and not from a bugti it tells me that there is a psyop going on regarding the baloch issue. it could be an intelligence operation designed to foment some form of hostility against baloch or at least the bugti tribe.

    in either case my response was, “nothing doing”

    • S U Turkman  On February 20, 2012 at 10:58 pm

      The British had not said, all the Moslim Majority Independent States are being awarded to Pakistan on August 14th, 1947. Nor had they said, all Hindu Majority States are being awarded to Congress Government of Federation of India that now has become just India.
      Just like India had no right to invade and occupy those States, Pakistan had no such right either. Therefore, the fact remains, Baluchistan, NWF Province, Northern Territories, Tribal Areas and Kashmir were invaded by Pakistan Army and it was defeated only in Kashmir so, it keeps fighting.

      • NAVEED TAJAMMAL  On February 21, 2012 at 6:45 am

        Turkman,as per your wild accusations,you are again distorting the facts.

  • Agha Gul  On February 20, 2012 at 4:53 pm

    I have highlighted an addendum, rest of the description is known as FACT. In the aftermath of Independence, and advent of DEMOCRACY, all small tribes are starting to call themselves Baloch. Kurd living in Bolan pass having migrated from Western Persia, Sanjrani, Qazis living in Noshki area call themselves Baloch. Raisanis, Zehris, Bunglezais, Khajak, Barozais and Satakzais also have become Baloch. The Sindhis living from Sibi to Jacobabad and in LasBella are also now Baloch. Mengal, who are Brahuis, and Gichkis in Mekran, Sheedis from Africa all have become “Baloch”.
    So, exactly who are Baloch? Khan of Kalat calls himself “Ahmadzai”, which cannot be a Baloch or Brahui !

    • S U Turkman  On February 20, 2012 at 11:05 pm

      Good question. There are people of too many nationalities living in Pakistan call themselves Pakistanis also so, exactly who are Pakistanis?
      Not the poor Schedule Caste Christians and Hindus, who’s ancestors have lived for thousands of years in what we call Pakistan now, Pakistan?
      The Purpose of preaching that nobody is Balochi (despite that their ancestors have lived there for thousands of years) is to deny their rights and keep Baluchistan under Pak Occupation and keep stealing Natural Resources of Balochis, nothing else. I guess, this is what Pakistani Islam teaches us, right?

      • NAVEED TAJAMMAL  On February 21, 2012 at 6:43 am

        Turkman,they do send you to their rescue,to paint their picture,but keep facts in mind,before you post your version,The bulk of Christians came here,with the influx of the british troops,and the army stations/camps.As to Hindu they were traders,mostly but for those given land in the 9 colonies,in the late 19th century,in the rural areas,we had No hindu,except for the local shopkeepers.
        As we had the sikh Aurora,another trader class.or they both infested the ‘mandi’ or the grain markets,or as money lenders,leeching the poor being their profession at large.Do study the demographic set up of these areas,it is all recorded.The revenue records testify to this.

      • SHWEBO  On February 21, 2012 at 7:26 am

        Well done, Turkman, Keep on provoking him and he will keep on sharing his research work with us. Turkman you are doing a great service to us. Thank you for forcing him to write what he is withholding/hoarding in his study.(Loads and tons of books)

  • Muhammad Abbas Baluch  On February 20, 2012 at 4:54 pm

    My father always use to say dont write Baluch with o and ner write Muhammad with o now i got to know o are fakes made by britishers. Ha!

    • S U Turkman  On February 20, 2012 at 11:13 pm

      Yeah sure. Baloch is not the right pronunciation. Its Balue-ch and Mohammad is not right because in Arabic its Mueha-mmaD, right?
      Learn English …,!
      If 2nd Letter is ‘U’ and 4th is a Vowel in a word, the U sounds ‘eu’ or ‘you’, not ‘O’. Don’t believe it?
      Open Dictionary and check …!
      So using a U in Mohammad means, you are asking a Britisher to pronounce it Mueha-mmad. What a silly idea …!
      But isn’t it what all of us are supposed to be?

      • NAVEED TAJAMMAL  On February 21, 2012 at 8:33 am

        Turkman,shame on you for carrying the Turkman,tribal name of the Turks,
        A pity you do not even know what the,term ‘Lu’ here stands for,let me enlighten you as usual ,Only in the Kizil-bashi entity of seven tribes,alone,are five associated with the ‘Lu’ term signifying the people.
        Which are,Ustaj’lu,Sham’lu,Nikal’lu,Bahar’lu,and Nadir shah belonged to the,kirk’lu entity, of the tribe with forty peoples,his being the Afshar,beside these i can quote numerous others.
        Read before you spew your wisdom on us.

      • NAVEED TAJAMMAL  On February 21, 2012 at 12:22 pm

        The modern Genetic studies substantiate,the old Etymology of the Turkman,term.Which is,that they are Not Turks by any yardstick,But a infusion,of a Mongoloid genetic component,in the old east Iranian stock,Hence turkman,technically you are not a turk,but as the word implied of old, a Turk-manad,or like the turk,or copy cats of the Turk,or resembling the Turk,naturally you cannot be expected to know what the term,’Lu’ stands for !

  • Rubina Faisal  On February 20, 2012 at 4:56 pm

    DR Tahir qazi on baluchistan issue .

    RUBINA faisal.

  • TMH  On February 20, 2012 at 5:03 pm

    Thank you very much for this valuable information. Kindly advise what is the
    bone of contention between Kalpars and Rahejos, and why Akbar Bughti forced
    out Kalpars their lands to Punjab. It was during Musharraf time they were assisted
    back to return. This information will be valuable for understanding th.e present


    • NAVEED TAJAMMAL  On February 21, 2012 at 6:17 am

      Thankyou TMH,for your comments.
      First a brief preamble,is a must,The land now defined,or as british did the demarcations(balluchistan),has of ancient times,been part of our indus people,habitat,or the refuge area,the kej-mukran being the pivotal area.
      The area was very well established in the bye-gone times,but as Omar khayyam,stated,”They say the lion and the lizard keep,the courts where jamshyed gloried and drank deep;…….”
      The reason why so many local sindhi,tribes have a mixture within the Balluchi set up is ,for reasons,simple loot and plunder,and the share,easy money and raids,which brought in the thrill of the chase.The Balluchi after they were pushed from there lands resoughted to time old profession,robbing,plundering and looting the Karwans(caravans),the massive trade between east and west,on the southern trade routes kept them busy,
      The share or division of loot,was the pecking order,the old ones got the maximum,the new gradually rose in esteem,and power,but it varied in different cases,as is seen,from time to time,Raheja,the original,but,the o ending in sindhi come in, courtesy a german linguist Ernest trummp,in the second half of 19th juneja became junejo.etc,
      Raheja is also part of the Magassi setup too,which had till end of 19th century,seven septs,The magassi too, is from the old samma order.
      As to the Khalphar and raheja,discord,well khalphar in numbers have always been more,the British gave leadership to a minor clan,hence the old grouse,the share of spoils,in this recent case that of the Royalties of Sui gas field,which rightly they should have been given,as per,the old custom of the service.

  • Syed Wajahat  On February 21, 2012 at 1:50 am

    Dr. Qazi has no solution for the issue, he appears as an agitator. No response
    to questions of upheaval that will ensue when Independence is obtained. Just 7 mil
    people in this vast land mass means, influx of labor from all over the world. If
    there is no structure for the welfare of Baluch citizen. The land mass will become a
    free for all.

    Independence is a bad idea, solicitation for fast development at individual citizen level
    is the key to a solution. The funding can be controlled by United nations if need be, through the sale
    of resources to the world making sure the revenue is spent in Baluchistan and is not
    filling the pockets of corrupt politicians.

    Let us start a compaign to convert Corruption and wealth mongering into Nationalism
    and love for the people of the land.

    Syed W. Hussain.

  • SHWEBO  On February 21, 2012 at 4:45 am

    A brilliant piece of research, eagerly awaiting for complete research work of author in the shape of hard copy or e book.

  • GRK  On February 21, 2012 at 4:41 pm

    we must look for people like ambassador ashraf jehangir qazi and retired judges from balochistan and seek every possible concession except independent country.i am sure wisdom will prevail.unfortunatly our politicians have let us down badly.from soldiers we cannot expect any solution.i am proud that our moderator aticle was picked up by some members of assembly.the relationship with americans is a very thorny issue.let us try to settle the matter amiciablly and let them leave afghanistan.grk

    • S U Turkman  On February 22, 2012 at 12:41 am

      Yeah, yeah because now voices tens of thousands of dead Balochis have reached Washington we must settle the matter or ‘mook mookaa’ the matter amicably.
      It was okay all the 5 times we slaughtered them before, when they stood up for their rights against our looting and illegal Occupation of their Land because the World had no knowledge of our this looting of Natural Resources of theirs and Cruelty. Now since whole world is learning about us Savages and Charity of Aid and Loans could be affected, we must do this ‘mook mookaa’ with Sardars to quiet them down. Right our Lords …!

  • Rafiq Mian  On February 22, 2012 at 4:28 pm

    Any one who had staked themselves with billions of dollars and human resources for years never come with out an specific well deliberated agenda. If you think the only super power though on decline has come to Afghanistan for adventure than I must say you are either too naive or have a wishful thinking. America shall never leave Afghanistan with out accomplishing its well thought of agenda and the agenda is not a hiking mission to con-quire K-2 but to make sure both Pakistan & Iran concede to their agenda at their own or get vanquished. The people are having sweet dreams and boastfully speaking aloud that America is beaten in Afghanistan and now is begging to Pakistan for a safe exit is nothing but a big joke with due respect to their intellect and foresight. The history of the greatest tragedy of 71 is repeating itself and might have become unstoppable at our own mishandling the issue from day one. No one in the ruling elites had bothered to see through the danger taking everything for granted like an drunkard nor has learnt any lesson from the past history till this date. Therefore, there is no option but to pass on the buck to Allah by Muslims (The imposters) saying, ” May Allah bless us to save the country.” But Allah himself says He does not help those who does not help themselves.”


  • S U Turkman  On February 22, 2012 at 5:52 pm

    A 15th Century style ranting by a 15th Century brain living in 21st Century. Oh sure, there have been Seas of Petrol, giant Natural Gas Reserves, Precious Metal Mines, Diamond Mines, Mineral Mines in Afghanistan and USA has landed to steal them all just like we had along-with our Taliban in 1996, right?
    Oh USA came to get near such wealth of Central Asian countries despite knowing, all of them are a part of Russian Commonwealth, right?
    The biggest Oil and Gas Reserves are in Azerbaijan, which was 100 miles from Iraq but USA has left Iraq because she thinks, its closer from Afghanistan more than a thousand miles away, right?
    All the Oil and Gas Reserves of Central Asia except for Azerbaijan (far away from Afghanistan) are lesser than Qatar’s, population 8 lakh, but crazy USA had to invade Afghanistan to just be near them instead of taking over tiny little Qatar, right?
    A very ignorant man here.

    • NAVEED TAJAMMAL  On February 23, 2012 at 1:42 am

      They must be paying you high rates these days,for defending,their policies,in your present dubious mode.

  • SB  On March 1, 2012 at 11:54 am

    Thank you Tajammul Sahab for sending me the link to read your article. My observations are as follows:

    Does it matter what all these ethnic origins are or are not? From a historical POV it is interesting reading. The ground reality that matters now is, these Sardars with their unearned and plundered wealth are playing havoc with the lives of the poor people, they have kept them poor by design, all over Baluchistan. They are hindering, nay blocking development. They have created a situation where no development can take place. They have created a law and order situation for which I blame our bad governance too.

    Because of thoughtless policies rather absence of policies by the Center and the brainless Nawaz Sharif giving vent to the supposed deprivations of Balochs only to spite Musharraf is making matters worse. Even Zardari and journalists go there and say “ziyadathi huvi” yes but who did it? The Sardars pocketed all their money, Balochs had nothing to eat even, so they had to leave Baluchistan to find a living elsewhere. You will find a Baloch in every nook and corner of Pakistan and India. Now if others go to Baluchisan they are on a killing spree freely. Should the Baloch be persecuted elsewhere? No. He should not be punished for the wrong doings of Sardars.

    I would blame the penchant of the Punjab to corner every thing for themselves all over the country and ride rough shod over the rights of others. They mishandled East Pakistan too. But the similarity ends there. They gave the chance to these tyrant sardars to make slaves out of Balochs. One cannot possibly ignore this apathy towards the common Baloch our compatriot. I insist “Placate the Baloch and sideline the Saradar”

    Just announce land ceiling. Distribute excess land among the landless poor Baloch. Put all the Sardars on trial for the tyranny on their own people for over 60 years. Please click and read:

    • NAVEED TAJAMMAL  On March 2, 2012 at 4:03 am

      Well said Cadri sahib.
      I did read the articles,in the link sent by you.
      yes we must sideline the British created Sardars,and help out the poor downtrodden,over whom they Rule,by the powers given to them by the British,however after 1947 the same should have ceased.And the Writ of GOP

      • sturkman  On March 9, 2012 at 6:13 am

        That’s right. Down with British Created Pakistan also. Who are Pakistanis?

    • sturkman  On March 9, 2012 at 6:20 am

      That’s right. All those poor Women and their children on the streets protesting against Pak Army that has killed their Husbands, Brothers, Sons and demolished their homes are wives of Sardars. We should arrest all of them and rape them in name of Defense and Security of Pakistan and Islam, right?

      • NAVEED TAJAMMAL  On March 10, 2012 at 3:17 am

        To your Pointed Question who are Pakistani,well all those who live in our geographic region.
        But what is more important,Who are You ???
        One has no grouse of you being a Christian-Crusader,and your inbuilt hate
        for us,But first identify your self,and the masters whom you serve and the rate of your labour.which they pay you.
        And do enlighten us,as it is about time,you came out of the Cloister of your Cathedral.
        So Samuel ulan Turkman ????
        Who are You ???????

  • sturkman  On March 10, 2012 at 3:31 am

    When my logic and reason defeat them, they all start personal attacks just like thousands of years ago ancient Tribal People used to.

    • NAVEED TAJAMMAL  On March 10, 2012 at 3:49 am

      True and well said,Turkman
      We all are in a way still Tribal
      And you a glaring example,as you still carry the,Tribal/ Turkman,entity linked,with your Christian name.
      Does the answer please you.
      But again,who are you ?

      • sturkman  On March 10, 2012 at 4:39 am

        Where is the Moderator?
        Why Personal messages are being posted here. Why this man can not send me his messages instead of bothering all the members?

      • pakpotpourri2  On March 10, 2012 at 1:36 pm

        I have repeatedly told u not to post your propaganda on my blog, when put in place you start squealing.

  • chemaine majid  On February 20, 2014 at 4:32 am

    isint it enuf tht people in the land of pakistan are pakistanis and shud not be judged for wht religion they follow or not follow. baluchistan is a tragedy tht has happened because of greedy sardars and no writ of govt. accusing each other of being a christian, hindu or muslim is not going to improve our lot. pakistan was created not in the name of islam but for disenfranchised muslims of india to be able to live free of hindu domination. well the muslims hve dominated the other religions in pakistan and the people hve been persecuted. christians and hindus have it very bad in pakistan. for a country to name itself an islamic republic does not understand tht minorities and their rights need to be respected and protected. as for the baluch. well the sardars need to be cut to size and their lands taken away and given to their peasants. we cant hve 13th century feudalism in 21st century. writ of govt established and no tribal laws. justice given to all. tht is not only applicable to baluch but to every pakistani who is crying out for justice. so lets make a pakistan envisigned by the Quaid and not the feudals and mullahs.

  • Mohammad  On February 23, 2014 at 12:34 am

    This guy, Turkman, is an agent of CIA,He is just doing his job of distorting the facts and trying to create hatred amongst Pakistanis (he is being paid big bucks to do it). Naveed sahib do not waste your time in replying to him.


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