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This is a Pakpotpourri Exclusive

By:Naveed Tajammal 

If all the kuchi wandering clans,who sought refuge,from their persecutors,having a history of not very distant past,today stake a claim,on carving for themselves part of the Indus Basin civilization,on one fallacious myth or the other, let them be  well adviced to kindly study their wanderings or the trails which led them here with the reasons why the crafty British created a geographic entity tittled Balluchistan,affiliated to their present generic calling.

It is not that the records do not exist,but it is the twisting of the facts,by a certain class of writers,who are bent upon to balkanise Pakistan by foul means.On the tunes of the players,who are playing the game and funding them with free hands.Also using the present progeny of the British created Elite,of this generic entity,as the pawns in the game.The reason why this new class of Sardars and Nawabs,were created only a little over a hundred years(nawab tittles were given in Jan 1890) was to break the rule over them by their actual mentors,the Barrohi’s,the sons of the soil,and who were not willing to play to the British tunes as required.
The Khan’s of Kalat,like the Kalhora of lower sindh were the wardens of the western marches of the Mughal empire,Each had been assigned his own area of watch.However the fall of the Mughal empire in 1739 AD at the hands of Nadir Shah Afshar the Turk,changed the geopolitics of the region,The Kalhora had refused the passage to Nadir Shah towards Multan,after the fall of Qandhar,and so came the wrath of Nadir shah upon him.Later,when his trans-Indus lands, were re-assigned to the Khan of Kalat,for the services rendered,as a rivalry between Kalhora and Kalat had existed for long,even in the Mughal era.
The Qandhar province of the Mughal empire had been lost to the Iranians in 1649 AD,however  a line of weak,Safavid rulers,and their grasp weaker on the eastern frontier,and aggressive Warden of watches of the Mughals,had created boundaries,more or less the same as were drawn later,in the Durand line.In reality the boundary had been further to west,but the British always wanted long desolate regions in between their boundaries,hence natural obstacles like mountain ranges/deserts were chosen,as the boundary lines dividing Afghanistan and Iran from the British imperial India and so Afghanistan & Iran, being the buffers between two great powers of the time,other being the Mother Russia.
The old Khurrassan had been named, by the British ,as Afghanistan,This was to be the main front line state,between Russia and British India,and hence the award of the corridor of Wakhan,which had been part of British India to Afghanistan.
In order to meet their future needs of ever loyal men,in the newly created Balluchistan entity post 1877,a need arose to end the Barrohi or the Khan of Kalats power.Therefore in 1893,the last of able Khans of Kalat ,Khudadad khan was arreste by treachery at Belpat,as he had held all of the tribes of Barrohi and Balluchi  Confederacy in a grip,the capture of Khudadad Barrohi and later imprisonment till his death in the Loralia prison in 1909 was the death blow to the Barrohi, prestige and power.Hence arises the Myth of the Balluchi Nationalism.
The subsequent history till 1947 is well recorded,But the fact remains that,the Barrohi represent a heritage immersed in time,Mehrgarh goes back to 7500BC,and the language of the Barrohi is a living example of this past,Through-out the vicissitudes of time.
Yes,indeed the Balluchi have a claim to a Nationhood,but they should lay it before the Governments of Tehran and Kabul,who have usurped, their lands.
Here they came in trickles,from the west in wandering nomadic clans,perhaps their old masters the Kiani rulers of old seistan,should be re-activated to take charge once again of them and guide them as they had for times gone by.The travelogue of the Balluchi wanderings are well documented,and their settlements as well,The grave of their acclaimed leader (Chakkar Rind) lies in Satgarran in Sahiwal district of punjab,The Author of ‘Popular poetry of the Balluchi’  M.Longworth Dames,1907 AD,states,that,’It is difficult to say how far any part of chakkar’s adventures are historical” and gives a date of the first Balluchi entry towards the Indus-river, as around 1520AD.
But then a likewise,history too can be seen in,Griffin’s ‘Punjab Chief’s’- here it would be pertinent to note,that as was case in Balluchistan here too The Punjab Government had requested the newly created chief’s to send accounts of their Ancestors and Descent of their tribes,the results can be seen in the book before mentioned,but it can be easily imagined how these new chiefs drew the long bow & what glowing accounts they gave and what noble or royal descent they gave upon themselves and to that of their tribes.
In fact it had been Mirza Shah Hussain Arghun the son of Shah Beg Khan,the Conqueror of lower Sindh,who had pushed these Balluchi Clans/Tribes,to the East with a force of just 1000 (one thousand) Cavalry alone ! In the early 16th century.
Later Chakkar Khan Rind,as an individual, was indeed a fief holder under the Suri rule,and Chakkar remained subordinate to Haibat Khan Niazi,the Governor of Multan and Lahore provinces,who had been awarded the tittle by the Suri of Masnad-i-Ala,Azam Humayun. 1543/44 AD.
The jews after wandering over two thousand years did come back to their old homelands,where they now rule,The Balluchi too should go back to theirs The Balyus,and wrest it from Iran and Afghanistan,because one of the required,pre-requisites, for Nationalism is a claim on the territorial land, secondly Balluchi is a language from the Iranian family,so are the Irani and Afghani languages,custom and culture too are akin.
Myths are indeed created for new generations,to believe in,that they have existed for thousands of years,this is done by the wise men,however what must be kept in mind is,when the nomads are on move,with their scanty belongings mostly on foot and a few camels and goats,when their very survival is at stake,they have no option but to merge like a chameleon with the surroundings,these stories, emerge with food in stomach and a sheltered life,and safety or peace in the surrounding areas.
Lastly the indus valley basin has been home of Egalitarian societies,disliked by the people to our East,the present indians,as we had been Republics,whereas they were ruled by Kings and Brahmans,a glimpse of the Barrohi social order based on the past can be seen,in the rule of Naseer l the Khan of Kalat.In fact it was this Khan of Kalat who actually settled these present Balluchi clans in the regions,by expelling,from almost the whole regions awarded by Nadir Shah to him of all the old sind valley local tribes ,i.e, The Kaachi Plains and present Marri-Bugti areas,,as they were loyal to the Kalhora’s,it is this,newly assigned lands, which these Balluchi, claim to be of their abode of old,that being not very old i.e post 1740 AD,and hence,some of Balluchi clans, moved in this migration further across the Roh i Sulaiman range towards the Indus River.Here it should be kept in mind that  a very old trade route had existed between Multan,Sanghar pass,Chachar,Choti Aila,Tal,Duki and onward to Pisheen,and hence to Qandhar or Herat..
The writer has written historical articles & is unparalleled in his knowledge for this region. He has 28 years of research work t support him.
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  • Salma  On March 18, 2012 at 10:06 am

    you don’t even know whether it’s Baloch or Balochi and you are unravelling Baloch Nationalism, how ironic!

    • NAVEED TAJAMMAL  On March 18, 2012 at 5:47 pm

      Salma unless you read the what i have written about the etymology of the term,Balluchi in the above cited links,only then can you argue,on the correct spellings,so kindly read it,first,later you can give your view point,and i will defend my contention,otherwise if you convince me,i will agree with you,that is the objective, of these forums.

  • mabbaskhan  On March 18, 2012 at 11:03 am

    We ll share some history soon which we inherited. Would you like to tell me what happened to Mir Mandu Khan and what was his role ?

    • NAVEED TAJAMMAL  On March 18, 2012 at 6:25 pm

      m abbas khan sahib,
      your reference to Mando khan,can be related only,with the happenings of Qandahar,as Dhu al-nun the father of shah beg,died in 1507 AD,whereas Mir Ahmed yar khan,the author of, Inside Baluchistan,brings him to 1530 AD.
      So kindly bring forth your references,of the Role of Mir Mandu Khan,otherwise it is the same story as we find in griffins ‘chiefs of punjab’.

  • Sajid  On March 18, 2012 at 1:13 pm

    A valuable history record of Baluchistan,,,Deep rooted detailed research work,excellent,,should be taken into account whenever Baluchistan issue is discussed.

  • Tahir M. Raja Munnoo  On March 18, 2012 at 2:31 pm

    Salaam Naveed Sb.,

    Appreciating and respecting your work these are efforts which support my approach i.e. we need to understand the BASICS of the issues which are haunting us and based on the truth/actual facts we need to try and draw out the future course of action. An integral part of the basics is the historical/foundation aspect based on concrete facts.

    As a management person I suggest that Potpourri umbrella (maybe in collaboration with PESA) needs to arrange sessions to discuss your point of view with participation of the right concerns / individuals / groups. And it is such interaction which leads to changing the required mindset…..extremely important if we need to take make the change which our Motherland very much deserves.

    All global games / players give unlimited time and attention to the history/facts of the ares they focus on !!!!!!!
    Naveed Sb. keep it up.

    Tahir Muzaffar Raja

    • NAVEED TAJAMMAL  On March 18, 2012 at 6:34 pm

      Thankyou Raja sahib
      The Actual story needs to be told,if all wandering tribes,started claiming the indus region as of their own,what will happen to those who through the Time,have lived here,and regard it as their,Mulk.or their country.
      what of their language which is neither iranian nor that of Hind,but,unique by itself.We indeed gave refuge to all,the Afghans are the latest refuges,in the post-1979 era,while we welcome all,with open arms, our rights cannot be negated just because those seven seas across,think differently, due to a lack of insight in our internal dynamics.

  • Ali Kazim  On March 18, 2012 at 2:47 pm

    An excellent article. Thanks for sharing. Regards.

  • a m malik  On March 18, 2012 at 4:00 pm

    As a history lesson it was good. But does it help us in the present situation?
    However the myth that “excesses have been committed on Balochis” and “Balochis have been ignored”, is the sort God’s truth that seems to toggle every one who matters. This really makes also an ordinary Baluch to believe in what their Sardars have been saying.
    These slogans that I would call – are always in a broad brush. In what way are these excesses have been committed is never said. OK then, every thing that concerns the good of an ordinary person is within the domain of the provincial governments. The schools,colleges, health, water , sanitation, roads, transport et al. I would therefore be grateful that in what manner have the rights of Baluchis been denied to them??? Even sui gas – which must be a monumental job to pump at a height of 5500ft to Quetta was done – thirty or so years earlier? so what is the lament- except that the sardars want to maintain the status quo meaning their perpetual seal of authority – hence is that they keep reminding us that they want to preserve their customs and culture – meaning thereby that their stranglehold on their people should continue.

    • NAVEED TAJAMMAL  On March 18, 2012 at 6:41 pm

      A M Malik sahib,
      Thankyou for your input,while what you state is correct,the need to highlight these facts,is to create awareness of the actual story of the recent immigration,of these people and also to highlight,that, what they claim is not the truth,as records exist of all happenings in the region,which even their masters who had created them acknowledge.

  • Hashim  On March 18, 2012 at 9:08 pm

    Reading history and looking back in time makes one think what is right and what is wrong. As has always been the case in history that the time is the best judge, today when we look at the adventures of Aslam Beg and co, we are left wondering how come something of National interest can have such disastrous effects on the Nation but the team who allegedly did it are shameless about it.

    Pakistan today it seems is on the verge of breaking down, something which was treason a few years ago is now regarded as an expression of their dissent and hence not treason. So tomorrow people like us can also start saying things about our country and this will soon become our right so this is how history shape things.

    If we look at the strike in Karachi against extortion by MQM, again the common people like us were made fools of since MQM got their grievance addresses at the highest level and attended the joint session but they did not call off the strike, because the strike affected commoners especially the daily wagers.

    Few years down the road history will forget about the joint session participation but will remember MQM’s strike against the mafia. So history is actually HIS STORY WITH A SINGLE S, one will never know what and why things happened the way they did.


    • Naveed Tajammul  On March 18, 2012 at 9:09 pm

      Dear Hashim sahib,
      One reads History,to see the correct sequence of events,and the current affairs of Today become the history in due course of time,past,present and future are inter-related.
      The objective of this article was to very briefly,negate the claim of the Balluchi nationalists on a region,which cannot be by any yard stick be declared as of theirs.
      As their lands are held by present Afghan and iranian governments ,it is from them they must seek their redress of grievances,we gave them refuge,when,”’this lot”, came wandering in our lands,not much long ago,early 18th century can hardly be regarded,as time,long ago ? the rest of their claim is the same,as found in the Griffins,chiefs of punjab,which has been given,as an analogy.

      Naveed Tajammal,

  • Syed Wajahat  On March 18, 2012 at 9:09 pm

    Tajamal Sahib

    I would like to interject 2 cents worth here. Please bear with me.

    Your article is a brilliant piece of writing
    delineating the historical event very clearly. But if the people who occupy a piece of land
    for their daily livelihood cannot call the piece of land their own. Even after having lived on it
    for 150 years. Can the same logic also apply to all of us Aryans who migrated across Khyber
    Pass and spread ourselves into the northern regions of the sub continent and pushed the aborigines
    down south.

    I am now totally confused.

    In other words, where do we draw a line to establish the ownership.

    Should Dravidians go to court to throw Aryans out of India, saying you came from
    central Asia so go back. Doesn’t that sound rather odd?

    I think the Baluchi issue is more of humanitarian rather than territorial.
    I also believe, these people have been neglected when the riches were
    divided amongst the population of Pakistan. The same as what happened
    with East Pakistan.

    Time has come to throw away the ethnic issues, and simply view nation
    as a whole and with that view help those who are lagging behind to come
    up to the standard of the rest of the nation.

    Further discussion from you is highly welcome on this subject.

    Syed W. Hussain

  • Naveed Tajammul  On March 18, 2012 at 9:11 pm

    Dear shah sahib
    I have gone over this aspect on a number of forums,as to who had been the original inhabitants,well they were not the dark races,or the Dravidian’s,as the terms goes,kindly remember in the 18th century quite a few new terms had been coined,Dravidian’s being done by hodgson,and munda by max muller,
    In the 19th and early 20th century the skeletal remains were checked,even of remote times indicated races,which are having the same nasal and head dimensions.As are found now amongst our old races or tribes,what we have unfortunately been,not taught.
    While the new immigrants have always been welcomed as was seen lately and reference given,in my previous mail,however what happens to rights of old,who are not for various reasons not agitating theirs ??????
    We are a very old civilization,which is composed of an assortment of numerous tribes,but all of old have accepted and gone in the fold of its pace,however the new want to agitate something which,takes the right of the old.
    So what of the old,who have lived here for thousands of years ??????

    Naveed Tajammal,

  • I. Zuber  On March 19, 2012 at 3:56 am

    Concise & to the point transition in historic terms supported by substantial references deserves appreciation from any reader who reviews this as the author has discussed the background in it’s entirety with all the whos, whats & where. I don’t find that as a scholar of history it is not the author’s responsibility to go beyond describing from a neutral observer’s position and Naveed sahib has done it in the best manner accounting for the entire transition disclaiming the usurping of those who choose to seek to break up a sovereign nation for their personal advantage following what their elders & sardars have done by depriving their very own people all along while charging a ransom from the nation. They don’t even spend their time in the land they take such pride in and rather resort to the hustle bustle and rich life of Karachi in Pakistan & other international locations of extravagance while depriving the people of their tribes and community of basic necessities and rights such as education & utilities.
    Those responsible for depriving Baluchs or Baloachs are their very own tribal sardars & feudals and none other though this article does not appear to discuss that.
    I agree If it is a claim to the parameters of hereditary lands the instigators should go after the surrounding states who are responsible for taking it from them i.e. Iran & Afghanistan & not Pakistan, in no manner the situation of Baluchistan compares to that of East Pakistan now Bangladesh.
    Thank you Naveed Tajammal sahib for offering such intricate details of history that go to tell a great deal and De-legitimize the invalid claims of few inheritors of Sardars who are in it for what is in it for me.
    I Zuberi

    • NAVEED TAJAMMAL  On March 19, 2012 at 6:34 am

      Zuberi Sahib,
      Thankyou for the comments,
      It was indeed the rich life of Old Karachi Night Clubs,in the Very Early 1950’s which sealed our fate,It was the daily haunt of our dear old and young I.C.S cadre class,as well the ailing and young newly created Noble classes,the second class mentioned, knew when and where to spend their ample funds,to mesmerise the idle Bureaucrats,who held the Writ of the land,and hence my lament.
      Now,had the Writ of the land been imposed,and the old fabric of Khudadad khan revived,and a individual like him located,from amongst the,then lot,which should Not have been an issue,then,nor can it be Now.The story today would be different,But,all is Not lost even today,If dedicated men can be picked,from amongst the people of Balluchistan,the situation can be handled.
      History testifies with ample stances,where even empires,what to say of a province,were Won,back in a single battle,And Politics is but a Battle field,
      which is played by wise.
      But provided the Wise take,Cognizance,in time.

  • Farman  On March 19, 2012 at 5:33 am

    Naveed,a little stronger axe strike at the right will hit the problem at its head.Tell the Baluchis that they first need to grab their own sardars who captivated their bodies,minds and souls and who were in fact not biologically from amongst them.I have not read books but my casual observations convince that features of the jeep riders are too different than the camel ones….this argument wouldn’t stand:that it is only because of good food and good living.Argument of cross marriages too wouldn’t stand,it took place within among regional sardars, so why these stark differences? It proves that invading and then ruling Turks,Iranians and Afghans,exploited and continue do so and should be targeted.Balkanising our land is no solution.

    • NAVEED TAJAMMAL  On March 19, 2012 at 6:44 am

      Farman Sahib
      What a Keen Observation,
      I need Not Add more,your Words stated,say enough !!!

  • Asim  On March 19, 2012 at 5:34 am

    As before a good job, I hope ignorant can benefit out out of it.

  • Riaz  On March 19, 2012 at 5:35 am

    Great stuff, this needs more than just a column space in a broadsheet paper. I mean air time, in order to rebuke and refute the claims made by the likes of Marris, Bugtis and a small band of their misguided followers. More importantly educate the ignorant media/anchors including the politicians who are ranting and raving on ‘Baluchistan issue’ day in and day out. This is my two penny worth suggestion!!

  • SHWEBO  On March 19, 2012 at 6:00 am

    Brilliant as usual. It is only our supreme parliament which is either ignorant or deliberately avoiding the issue.

  • Shahzada Shazoo  On March 19, 2012 at 12:13 pm

    After Afghanistan Those Blue Eyed B…….dsHave Their Eyes on Baluchistan Because of its Strategic Location & Natural Resources….Allah Karay K Koi Insaano Ke Goverment Aayay Taa K Amrekio K Naapaak Iraday Rok Sakay…Amen,,,Jo Aaj Govt aur Opposition may hay wo tao hamaray mulk ko baichnay par tulay hovay hay..

  • a m malik  On March 19, 2012 at 12:37 pm

    Mr Tajammal As I mentioned earlier that it was a good piece of research – but then what thereafter? The fact is that the Bauchi Sardar had had his writ established in Baluchistan – whether or not they are sons of soil or not. Another weak area has been our been that almost all the Beuraucrats did not bother to learn Baluchi. This is the big rub. Even the ISI fellows are minus this – who should actually be firm not only the language but also the culture of the Baluchis.- because that is where they have to work in. For the inside job they hire Baluchi – whose soft corner continues to be alligned with the rest of the clan.
    So??As of now can these Sardars be ignored???

    • NAVEED TAJAMMAL  On March 19, 2012 at 1:36 pm

      Well said A.M.Malik sahib,
      I am a student of history,what you point out,are,the policy matters,
      in which i have No ingress or a say,hence it is for them to do,what they feel
      is the best,under the circumstances.

  • Sagheer Ahmed  On March 20, 2012 at 2:50 pm

    The depth knowledge of the writer in history is highly appreciated.
    Sagheer Ahmed


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