Legacy of British Aristocratic Order Continues

By: Naveed Tajammal

Be it any part of present Pakistan it would be very hard, but for a few exceptions, for any the leading Aristocratic class to prove that, the grant still held was Not for services rendered to the East India Company or the Crown later.so continue the descendants in the chain, who since 1947 have changed coats, flags, bandwagons, what irks one the most that how after 1947,they managed to change the clauses of the grants, as they all till British Rule ended remained subject to the law under which they had been awarded in the first place. As will be subsequently explained in the article all grants irrespective of acreage remained subject to the whim and wishes of the state. Pathan-Maliks

The legacy of this new class is not old at all, after the annexation of the Sikh Kingdom, or earlier in what came to be called Sindh or Balochistan, Kalat state, and upper regions were made in Punjab, and Gilgit agency. Not discussing the Buffer zones created, as well keeping in view the looming threat of Czar of Russia to access the warm waters in the south.

One interesting point which became a sore issue with the new class was the personal service to the government clause, as and when required by the state to invoke, in case of any threat to its Frontiers. The clever English knowing the weakness of these men, but loyalist, came up with a new law to circumvent the old clause. To ensure that these loyal lackeys continue to rake the poor and fill the coffers of the state exchequers, and compensate the Crown by providing them cannon fodder for its Wars, by giving recruits in lieu off. The rule was fixed that,” Two-Anna’s were to be paid to the Government for each Rupee of Jagir revenue, in special cases, however the bulk paid, ”Four -Anna’s in the rupee and for succeeding generations it was Eight-Anna’s in the rupee, however

those who provided exceptional good services and looked after the long line of communications, ferry-points, camels/horses when required, or men, the Crown Acknowledged their services, by giving them permanent reduction in their rate of commutations to just One-Anna to the rupee, however Two-Anna remained for the most.

In 1864 emerged a new list of precedence of new chiefs, and native gentlemen of Punjab and its dependencies [excepting Simla states] who were invited to attend the Vice-regal Darbar to be held at Lahore on 18th October 1864.The said list was divided into two classes A and  B, total number of men invited were 603 individuals, with 39 more who came as government officials designated

in various parts, The list column as given in the list has, the Region/Division from which he hailed, his seat number[on which he was to sit] Name, Nazr[due from him],Khilat [Crowns due back to him] and  remarks of his standing i.e. From Peshawar, seat number 32,was of Syed Aya uddin of Kunar, Nazr [Rs.800],Khilat [RS.1600]  jagirdar/Magistrate of Morazai, Again from Peshawar, Seat number 565,wasof Kazi Nadir Ali, Nazr [RS.100],khilat [RS.125]  Vakil of Jammu Government, in attendance on Deputy Commisioner of Hazara.

Example from Derajat [trans-Indus, from Kashmore till Isakhel and  Bannu, Marwat, Tank regions] an exceptional case being quoted from a actual old family, Seat number 145,Mian Shahnawaz Sarai, Nazr [Rs.500],Khilat [RS.625] Descendant of the Kulhora Rulers of Sindh-Jagirdar/Magistrate of Rajanpur. Another example from Derajat,seat number 416,Faiz ullah khan Bannochi, Nazr [RS.100]

Khilat [Rs.250] son of lalbaz khan a malik of Bannu. From Lahore, seat number 15 was of Raja Harbans Singh.Nazr [RS.1400],Khilat worth RS.1750 consisting of 3 jewels, Tass Khilat of 7 pieces,1 sword,1 shield,1 belt.in remarks it was mentioned that he was the adopted son of Raja Tej Singh, again from Lahore was seat number 602 given to one Nizamuddin, Nazr [RS.50], Khilat [Rs.75].

From Rawalpindi which included Shahpur [later sargodha]/Kushab, seat number  514,was of Fatah khan Tiwana, Nazr [RS.100],Khilat [Rs.150].Again from Rawalpindi, seat number 514A,[co-shared],Mohar singh Dowiatalia, Nazr [Rs.100] khilat [Rs125].From Multan,seat number 402,Kazi Muhammad Jan, Nazr [RS.100] Khilat [Rs.200],again from multan, seat number 373,Ghulam Kadir khan khakwani,Nazr [RS.100] Khilat [Rs 200].

Out of 603 invited, from whole British Punjab, Lahore division had 107 representatives, Derajat, 99, Peshawar. 60,Rawalpindi, 50,and Multan 12, in all 228.

Most of people inducted here were those who had taken part with Major. Edwards, in his move from Bannu towards Multan, in 1848, to fight the Revolt of Dewan Mul-Raj. Governor of Multan province of Sikh kingdom. Later all these people had petitioned the Company for rewards due, and vide letter No.1975 dated 18 june 1850,The Board of Administration under its Rule no.2 had given following

executive orders to its Deputy Commissioners, It was upon the petitioner to prove that he or his other members of his family were with the columns of Major Edwards in Various, battles fought to establish the Writ of the Company, where need arose.

After the death of Ranjit Singh, The British had sent a political agent to Peshawar to keep a check on activities of local Tappadars who raked the revenues from poor to pass on to the Sikh Darbar or Takht Lahore.

An example of such a correspondence is, as seen in the Press List of records of North West Frontier Agency [which was prior to annexation of Sikh kingdom the region now called East Punjab] with HQ at Ludhiana. for the years 1840-1842.the letter was despatched from Peshawar by Lieut. Mackenson dt.17 july 1840 to G.R. Clerk, esq, the agent to Governor General. Subject was; Defeat of Mukarrab Khan of Punjtar by Arsala khan of Zaida with Sikhs in his support, being a local Tappadar of sikhs.

The Abstract of the letter was; Lieut. Mackenson  reports, that, copies of letters from the  Mir of Sodum in Yusufzia reporting

that one Arsala khan a portege/Tappadar, of Sikhs,has defeated Mukarab khan of Punjtar,adds that sikhs are said to have collected about RS.40,000/- of revenue from Yusufzia territory this year;

The British in order to retain on the seat their new class of created loyalists,had also come with Court of Wards,concept,whereby as most were habitual Gamblers they used to run in heavy Debts with local money lenders,in most case lock, stock and barrel was hocked to the Hindu khatri moneylenders. So an amendment was made in August 1895,appendix ix to Deppt of [Rev.]and [Agric.][G] no’s79-105,proposed the amendment to the law. As by June 1895, the number of estates which were in court of ward had arisen to 64,with an income of RS.10,53,531/- and expenses of RS.10,59,067/-

The law was very clear it was for only those jagir holders who held land from the Crown, and not for those who through speculation had acquired large tracts of land, they were left by the state to Rise and  Fall on their merit.

The D.C of the concerned district, in matter of Court of Wards, took over the estate paid off the debt and next in line was given the charge of the Jagir.

The swat River Canal had come in operation from Khariff 1885, and it extended to Kalpani and was to irrigate the whole Maira circle.

However large grants in anticipation had already been awarded to loyalists,Vide PRAR Feb.1896 for Mardan and  Swabi,the following Eight persons got the bulk of Jagirs awarded to them, for having in the past provided services to the Company and  Crown, beyond call of Duty. In all 136,643 acres barani/nahri [irrigated/none irrigated] was given to just these Eight.

Khawaja Mohammad khan of Hoti was given 24,905acres,  Muhabbat khan of Toru got 24,226 acres, Khan Bahadar Ibrahim khan s/o malik ghulam khan got 24,892 acres, Shad Mohammad Khan s/o Mir Afzal khan got 24,646 acres, Sher Ali of Hoti got 6738 Acres,  Musammat. Mastura Bibi Aunt of Shad khan of mardan, got 1562 Acres, Progeny in direct line of Mir. Babu khan got 30,961 acres, Subedar Habib Khan got 5721 acres in land and  RS.3,076 in Inam.

The terms of these Grants were very clear.For Service and position . To be continued to a single heir designated by Crown, heir to be chosen by the Government. Services required. Subject to good behaviour and  service. f]Govt, service to be rendered when required.

To see to it that these large 8 grants were in a compact blocks, Captain Deane and Lala Mangal Sen Extra Assistant Commissioner had to remove a very large number of people who already held land in the region, reduced, now in narrow long strips, as division of the family lands, they were removed elsewhere and given land in a block of the total strip when measured. So were accommodated these Eight new Jagirdars.

By 1896 the land of Shad Mohammad khan above cited had been shifted to the Court of Wards, and let on lease @ RS.1-8-0/- or for one rupee and eight anna’s per acre.

Covering the rest of Peshawar District having seen the major Jagirs awarded in Mardan and  swabi, we move to Peshawar Tahsil and  Nowshera. Vide assessment report of tahsils by Louis W. Dane esq.1896.pages 28-34.

Tahsil Nowshera had 7 jagirs awarded, example being, Estate :Banda Shekh ismail circle chahi /nahri. Name of jagirdar. Farid khan and  murad khan sons of Arbab Abdul Majid and  Mussammat. Zamurra, Daughter of  Arbab Fateh Mohammad. Acreage was 4/5th of total village land measuring 1343 acres. revenue being RS.444/-.Remarks. Part of khalil arbabi jagir RS.5000 released under orders conveyed in Punjab Govt.no.1903 of 12th april 1859 to abdul majid on the death of his son Fateh Mohammad in 1879, the grant changed into perpetuity grant in favour of his children subject to resumption of 1/4th on death of each child.

In Tahsil Peshawar total jagirs numbered 41, The case study of one in the end is a must to further elucidate the point that these jagirs remained always under the Thumb of the state, how after 1947 the change came baffles one’s mind.

Estate : Landi Yarghajo and 14 other estates, Name of Jagirdar. Arbab Muhammad Hussain Khan son of Arbab Sarfraz khan of Landi Yarghajo-total acres-27,007. revenue RS.10,937/- remarks: given vide Govt. of Indialtr. no,106 dt.13 jan 1875. to Nawab Sarfraz khan on condition of Arbabi services, and vide ltr.no.842.dt 11 may 1887 to Arbab Muhammad Hussain RS.300/- for life and remaining RS.10,637/- during the pleasure of Government as an arbabi grant.

As we see all Grants irrespective of Size were governed by the same hand and subject to strict rules and  regulations, displeasure was revoking of the grant.

NOTE: This is a cross post from: http://www.opinion-maker.org/2013/08/legacy-of-british-aristocratic-order-continues/

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  • Naveed Tajammal  On August 18, 2013 at 4:24 am

    Thankyou for posting the Article. Yasmeen aftab ali.

  • idrees  On August 18, 2013 at 9:01 am

    Yes, even today we have the Farzandaan-e-Dilpazeer Daulat-e-Bartaania, Nawab Ulloo Khan Chook Tehaan of Dera Nawab.

    Khush Raho, khushiyan baanto
    Love, Freedom, Connectivity & Justice

    • Naveed Tajammal  On August 18, 2013 at 1:15 pm

      well said Ahmed,indeed the system of land grant is almost universal,and conditions too have been more or less the same,state always,remained paramount,hence my observation why,were they Not revoked or why no regulations were put on them after 1947,buffer territories[tribal] even,between punjab and british balluchistan,which was different to Kalat state,should have been reverted back to Multan province,Grants in other regions were likewise governed by the same clauses.

  • Ahmed Rehman  On August 18, 2013 at 9:02 am

    Thank you Naveed for an extremely detailed article on the Grants etc given to the so called elites of today.Please enlighten us whether was a continuation of the system established by the Mughals with slight variations.

  • Shomu Bhatacharya  On August 19, 2013 at 5:51 pm

    After the defeat of Maharaja Ranjit Singh when Major Lawrence gave part of the erstwhile Punjab (J&K) as jagir to Maharaja Gulab Singh for a sum of RS 75 Lacs, the British probably never realized how much more it would cost both India and Pakistan in terms of money and of human sacrifices to keep the burning issue alive. And when Lawrence in order to start the first school in Sanawar and later the school at Ghoragali asked for a donation –Gulab Singh promptly gave him Rs One Lac. And even today that British legacy as far as opening schools and colleges are concerned it still is on- but the only difference is that now the poor parents have to shell out that donation.

    • Naveed Tajammal  On August 19, 2013 at 6:09 pm

      well said,but keep in mind these type of public schools and as well as military colleges,like one at jhelum for Non-commissoned officer& others in British India was set up to bring forth a class,of young men who would act as standard bearers of the Empire.As by 19th century they had put an end to our old educational system,as well as all literature associated with it,in Farsi,by replacing it by Urdu.English and Hindi.The old system was trilingual,local language and its script,Farsi and its script as well Arabic for those who joined Madrassah,however hindu/sikh had their own schooling system on the same lines,common was Farsi.The language of Men of Letters.

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