A Pakpotpourri Exclusive
By: Naveed Tajammal
Study of Historical Geography if pursued lays bare a lot of fallacious myth’s, Hindu Pundit’s have always been first to, distort any history which does not confirm with their myth’s, The fate of ‘Gaur’ too came under their knife, as it, reflected the Buddhist Past of this region, which later came to be termed as Bengal.
The Hindu- Brahman stresses purely on a conjecture that, according to their own records, ‘Bengal’ is the abode of one their umpteen gods,’Banga’,and where this abode actually is located will be explained later in this article, I quote from the first translation of Ayeen e Akbari, by Francis Galdwin 1783 edition page 300,it is written,that,’Bungaleh,originally was called Bung; it derived the additional AL, from that being the name given to the mounds of earth which ancient kings caused to be raised in the low lands :their breadth was usually twenty cubits,and height ten cubits’.,as per narration given,’Bungal’ means,land of ,Cause-ways,dykes & embankments,to contain floods,from the rivers and numerous creeks and tributaries which criss-crossed the landscape.
The first Muslim writer giving specific notice of the capital city of Gaur,from which through-out the past ages this region is termed,and called as such, as long as,’ Gaur’ was
dominated it controlled the whole later Bengal, during the long Buddhist rule,even testified by Fa-Hien who travelled all over,and visited this region in his quest to collect Budhhist Scriptures between 399-412 AD,had found only Buddhism as the sole religion in full bloom,later,came Hwen Ts’ang in the 7th Century,followed by Khi-Nie and his group of Buddhist monks 964-976 AD all in quest of scriptures,& he too reported of Buddhism flourishing as the main religion in the region under study.Meaning there was No Brahmanism or Hinduism as it is termed these days.
Reverting now to Minhaj-Usman the author of famed ,’Tabaqat i Nasiri’ completed in 1260 AD,who visited Lakhnaoti,in 1243 AD,according,to his book’s best translation done by Major.H.G.Raverty in 1881 AD,Vol l, page-559 foot-note 2,he gives copious references, in crux, he states,’…that the ancient name of the city was ‘Gaur’ afterwards it changed to ‘Lakhanawati’,subsequently reverted back to Gaur again.”
Emperor Humayun named it ‘Bakht-abad’….”.However in Ayeen Akbari, as translated by francis galdwin and quoted earlier,page-303,states,’Jenutabad is a very ancient city,and was once the capital of Bengal,Formerly it was called Lucknowty,and before that Gaur,…..’’
Minhaj-Usman was amazed by the layout of this mega-city of its times [ref : pages-112-116,vol x,9th edition encyclopaedia britannica]and giving the layout of the city states, that Ghiyas uddin’- Iwaz the 4th Muslim ruler of Lakhanawati’ had made embanked roads across the low,country east and west of the city for a space of a ten days journey and also were seen embankments,running through the suburbs and,extending in directions 30-40 miles.Going in further details of this magnificent city,which remained capital and region so called because of it,during the Archaeological surveys done,in the early British Era’s in quest of hidden treasures that being the sole agenda, various references are found,that it was very large,”oblong’ city, within,its walls from North to South seven and half miles and with a breadth varying from one and a half to two miles,and was on the eastern bank of a former bed of Ganges River,the city had massive fortresses on North and South,the West in any case had Ganges with very high embankments,on the Eastern there were double,embankments,with two deep ditches of immense width,for protection against,floods-as river mahananda flowed in the east.The royal palace stood on the south end of the city,and further south were a chain of suburbs,thus from north to south the whole extent of ground gave the bearing & indications of urban occupancy 20 miles in extent.
The Fate of this ancient Buddhist city was no different to that of others,it too became a quarry of building materials, the old capital which had given its,name to the region,later to be called Bangal,was robbed to build Pandua city and Rajmahl,while in later periods the bricks and stones of Gaur’ were transported as merchandise to Malda,Murshidabad,Hoogly,Rangpur,and the more valuable stones to Calcutta. Which is all substantiated, by the East India Company revenue records returns, Later when Bungal was transferred to the company one finds entry of an annual levy of RS.8000/-,as the ‘Gaur-brick royalty’,from the landlords in the neighbourhood of ‘GAUR’ who retained exclusive right of dismantling, it’s remaining bricks & stones.
Beside Minhaj-Usman we find that the Venetian Nicolo Conti was also in this city in the 14th century,a much more detailed account is that given by,De Barros who while in the company other Portuguese adventurers visited the city in 1537-38 AD,according to him along the embankments of the river were Villa’s ,Orchards,Gardens,and the city had 200,000 inhabitants, the streets were wide and straight with trees planted providing shade to the travellers.The last great inquiry of Gaur city was done by J.A.Ravenshaw in the 19th century,he was from the Bengal Civil Service and wrote a book,’Gaur : It’s ruins & inscriptions’.with photographs and foot-notes.
Even should you read ‘The Geographical Dictionary Of Ancient And Mediaeval India’ by Nundoo Lal Day.Published in 1927.He too agrees that,The Whole of later Bengal was ‘Denominated’ as Gaur//Gauda from its capital of the same name,The point stressed by above short detail of the historical geography of the region but testifies that old name of Bengal was Gaur//Gauda.
Leaving aside now the geography part,we can now focus on who actually can be pinpointed,as the architect,of this myth of Bengali language being old,and having within it, its own social mores and culture,so much stressed by its apologists. It was a Dr.M.Shahidullah born in Peyara,in the Chobbise  Pargana district of British Bengal [1885-1969] who took onto himself the task of distorting the already distorted new Bengali as will be explained subsequently,He did his B.A [Hons] in Sanskrit language in 1910 from City College Calcutta and a M.A in 1921 in comparative philology,again from City College Calcutta,Shahidullah was totally mesmerized by the aura and writings of Rabindarnath Tagore.In 1925 he started his thesis that Bengali originated from Magadhi rustic dialect,in 1926 he went to Paris university to study Vedic sanskrit,as well the ancient sanskrit,he spent time in Freiburg university Germany doing more research in his subject,and eventually received his Doctorate from Sorbonne university Paris in 1928.He later was the moving spirit behind the agitation of the new bengali as it emerged under the patronage of Tagore he was made the secretary of East Bengal literary society from 1936-1940.He was the man behind the ensuing the linguistic riots in East Bengal as it was only in 1956,that East Bengal became East Pakistan,His identity was never disclosed to any of the agencies,so undetected ,he ensured that even after independence from the British and Hindu Yoke no past records emerge which could negate his stance and thesis,for that he became,one of the leading founding father’s of The Asiatic Society of Pakistan based at Dacca in 1952.,in the later publications of the ‘Journal of the Asiatic society of Pakistan’ to quote as an example Vol.vii june 1963,we find him as the president of the council of the Asiatic Society Pakistan,with emergence of Bangladesh it was made into,Asiatic Society of Bangladesh but shahdidullah had died in 1969 having done his job of distorting facts and causing the,later subsequent mayhem & For providing the wrong intellectual fire to the Mukhti-Bhani /Awami league, However as we see, he was later well rewarded, as he was given posthumously in 1980 ‘The Swadhinto Padak’,the highest state award introduced by the BD Government in 1977.
The British under a hindu dominated class of teachers had established the Dacca college in 1841,Chittagong College 1869,Rajshahi college 1873,Comilla Victoria college 1899,Ananda Mohan college Mymensingh 1901,Brajalal College Khulna 1902,and the University of Dacca in 1921.
To further substantiate my argument now i take my reader to a book-reference ;’Handbook of Kaithi Character’ by George.A.Grierson Phd,of Her majesty’s Indian Civil Service’ published by Thacker,Spink & Co.Calcutta.1899.in the Introduction on page 1 he states, ”By a recent order in 1880,of the Bengal Government ,the Urdu character has been abolished from all official documents, the Deva-Nagri character being substituted for it in printing, and the Kaithi character in papers written by hand’’. Thus this was the death blow to the old Gauri/Bengali- literature written in the Perso-Arabic script which had existed from the early 12th Century AD, from which it has never recovered and the clueless gullible. Bengali Nationalist does Not, even know these facts, as people like Dr.M.Shahidullah ensured that, such facts never saw the light.[I have the original book quoted above].
Reverting back to the term Bengal,the ever fertile brahman says,that according to his fallacious geography ancient king named Banga ’formed one of the five outlying kings of Vedic Aryan India and his fabled city now washed away was located near present Chittagong,so if this extreme south eastern side was Bangla well what of those regions further north ? according to the 11th edition of encyclopaedia Brittanica,published in 1911,’’with a passage of time and expansion of east india company all its north-eastern factories,from Balasore on the Orissa coast to Patna,in the heart of Bihar,belonged to the ‘Bengal establishment,and as the British conquests crept higher up the rivers,the term came to be applied to the whole of Northern India,i.e The Presidency of Bengal,in contradistinction to those of Madras and Bombay, It even,eventually included all the British territories North of the Central Provinces,from the mouth of Ganges and Brahamaputra to the Himalaya’s,and the Punjab,It was only in 1831 that the geographic entity of North-Western Provinces was created ,which included Oudh & the united provinces [U.P],by 1911,the northern british india was divided into 4 Lieutant-Governorships,of the Punjab,The U.P,Bengal and Eastern Bengal & Assam,while NWFP remained under a commissioner.In the post 1911 period,Lieutant-Governorship of Bengal had namely : Bengal proper,Bihar,Orissa & Chota Nagpur,whereas in physical geography,Chota Nagpur separated the Bengal region from the central indian plateau-Orissa embraced the rich delta’s of the river Mahanadi and the neighbouring rivers,bounded by the bay of Bengal on the south-east,the sub-province of Bengal proper had comprised the higher valley of the Ganges from the spot where it issues from the lower confines of united-provinces boundary-line,between Bihar and Orissa was Chota-Nagpur,a portion of which in 1905 was given to central provinces,The valley of Ganges which was divided between West and East Bengal and Assam remained one of the most fertile and densely populated tracts of the British Empire,In this fertile tract of land, teemed with every product of the nature,Tea,Indigo,Turmeric,Lac,Opium,Wheat,Rice,all kind of Grains & pulses,pepper,ginger,betel-nut,quinine,beside costly spicies & drug related herbs and plants,oil-seeds,cotton,silk-worm mulberry,jute and other fibres,timber,and all kinds of Bamboo,coroneted palm ,in short-every vegetable product which could feed and cloth a people, and, the coal reserves were aside, for the Hindu Merchant or the English traders it was the ultimate heaven, of cheap labour and resources which could be taxed and exploited to the maximum.
Reverting back to the Language,before the british and hindu intellectual jumped in to create a new language,as seen in Bangla-Desh,before the 19th century,Bengal had four different mother-languages spoken within its Bengal proper entity,Aryan-Dravidian,Munda & Tibeto-Burman,This mythical Banga city mentioned above may or may not have existed as most fail to understand that all low lands where come the yearly sea floods ,and even those which are slightly higher were formed due to massive silt brought down by the criss-crossing rivers,and so the delta was formed,the sea-coast was much higher before,even the Vedic invasion cannot go beyond 1750 BC,the World had existed much before,so had the people of this Bengal even the people who did the Zoological Survey of India,between 19th and early 20th Century agree that Natives of Bengal are pre-Aryan.It is a fact that,Bengal remained the centre of Buddhist mystique,till the Muslim Invasion,and was converted subsequently to the Muslim Faith,Hinduism trickles in here more in the Mughal era,and floodgates open with British arrival who re-soughted, to the Time honoured Mass transportation to create their balance of power,with these new immigrants came their new faith, that of umpteen gods and black magical rites, and human sacrifices and Temple prostitutes, and the rigid caste system under the watchful eyes of their mentors the British who had their eyes but on the fertile lands above breifly explained.
The new Bengali language as we see emerged in the 19th century was heavily laced with Sanskrit which again has been a artificial Language,a fact known as such to all philologist as such,the result was it could not be understood by any native of Bengal who had not received special instructions in it,late19th century and early 20th century saw two languages in Bengal; one was the Literary speech and other the old vernacular, the literary speech remained unintelligible to the common masses, even to people of West-Bengal what to say of East Bengal ,the sanskritic drunk intellectuals of this new Bengali,even themselves failed to understand the old archaic words of Sanskrit or those conjured, and passed by the pseudo-Bengali Intellectuals, whose meanings only they knew, the others not to be taken as ignorant accepted them, The reason was simple no average Bengali could read this new literature unless well versed in Vedic literature, by expunging the old Perso-Arabic loan words in the vocabulary and dictionary, as well the old script and burning the old literature, which was akin to their old social mores, the Bengali was left clueless of his past or his glory.
The sad part was even though the proponents of this new language thrust it down the Bengali’s throat these new words, his vocal organs were such that he was incapable of uttering these sounds, even the highly educated Bengali would read the Sanskrit word.’Laksmi ’but utter it as ‘Lakkhi’,the result only proved that it was not in anyway a indigenous language, by any margin, end result only proved that the new Bengali words given in the new literature rarely represented those spoken, this especially is seen in the case of muslim educated in the Mektab & madrsah used to old Bengali literature now destroyed [extracts : from page-733-Language-11th edition encyclopaedia brittanica].
The new modern Bengali emerged from Fort.William.Calcutta, in the 19th century AD as a child of the revival of Sanskrit learning’s.The old vernacular Bengali died by the following each decade,as this new Bengali language became a slave of Sanskrit, these new fetters imposed upon by this alien language, with its equally strange vocabulary, killed the old Bengali language, which now awaits the birth of a ‘True Nationalist’- Bengali, genius who alone can purge this new language of its pseudo-classical Sanskrit loan words.
Lastly what this foolish female,The one and only,Hasina Wajid fails to comprehend is,that,It is this ancient-Magadhi, now infested with Sanskrit,which is the root of her, new Bengali,The actual Language of the very Bihari whom they detest and kill,on which Dr,M. Shahidullah spent his life reviving and polishing and injecting in the new Bengali-Dictionary.