Monthly Archives: May 2014

The Pakistan Coup detat of 1958: Part IV

You can read: ‘The Pakistan  Coup detat of  1958: Part 1 on by clicking the link:

You can read: ‘The Pakistan  Coup detat of  1958: Part 11 on by clicking the link:

You can read: ‘The Pakistan  Coup detat of  1958: Part IV on by clicking the link:

Naveed PicNaveed Tajammal

March 1954 elections in East Pakistan came as a eye-opener for the gang. Ghulam Mohammad the bureaucrat turned politician turned tables on the united front-which had defeated the Muslim league in East Pakistan because the united front was planning to bring in changes in the new constitution-thereby the powers of Governor-General would be restricted, and subject to approval by the Prime Minister- this was done on 21 September 1954-however on 24 Oct 1954-Ghulam Mohammad had dissolved the Assembly and the same day-Mohammad Ali Bogra appointed a new Cabinet Hussain Shaheed Shurawardy of the united front of East Pakistan joined in the new cabinet-as did Iskandar Mirza and the C in C- Pakistan Army Ayub Khan who had technically no right legally to be doing so-It was on this occasion that the P.A of the Governor General -M.B. Khalid writes in his book-”Awan e Sadr mein Sola sal’ published 1988-pg-83/84; ”Ghulam Mohammad had proposed to Ayub Khan- that he could become the interim Prime Minister -provided he, within 90 days make a new constitution-and so a referendum could be held.” This offer Ayub Khan had declined.

Soon after Ghulam Mohammad fell sick and was totally bed ridden -In Aug 1955-Iskandar Mirza became the Acting Governor General-after the constitution of 1956 came in vogue in March -Iskander Mirza was elected unanimously as the First President of Pakistan.

Meanwhile having engineered himself as the Governor General-Iskandar Mirza and his gang now played the musical chair of Prime Ministers-First to go was Mohammad Ali Bogra-Followed by Chaudary Mohammad Ali, next was Hussain Shaheed Suhawardy who had outlasted his utility-Ibrahim Chandigarh lasted barely two months and last one was Feroze Khan Noon was dismissed on night 07/08 October 1958.

Should one read the memoirs of Feroze Khan Noon-‘From Memory’- finds that Feroze Khan as the Foreign Minister had the backing of Suhrawardy the Prime Minister and Iskandar Mirza, the president to follow a foreign policy which led to a conflict of interest with the Pro-American Ayub khan clique-As Feroze khan rightly states in his book ‘In Foreign policy it is the interests of of the country that are at stake, and not the party interests….I also felt that we must come nearer to U.S.S.R.[Russia].’ The other logic Feroze Khan Noon gives against too much reliance on American and Western Countries Aid since 1950’s and why the we should have had a tilt towards U.S.S.R was that, their focal point was to sell their old and new machinery and next came the technicians and erection and installation phases-who were mostly western or American and they took back a substantial portion of this AID in their salaries and other facilities which had to be created to lodge and board them. And the majority of these technicians who were sent here, according to Feroze khan noon, were those who were unable to make the grade in their own country-Here their personal comforts were given foremost priority the result was, that little Americas were created-with their refrigerators and air conditioners and imported homogenized foods -not to miss their  American Cars-And so Feroze khan quotes the example of Russian Technicians in the same period in Afghanistan-who would wear the same clothes as the public wore and lived amongst them-and so the emotional dividends.

The American pressure on Ayub Khan & Air Marshal Asghar Khan  to get things rolling was seen in the case of Badaber Air Base or the Peshawar Air Station- The civil Government was not suited to American Policies-It was after the removal of Feroze khan Noon that things really started rolling on this project-the end result was whose responsibility falls on  Air Marshal Asghar Khan who was the commander in Chief Air force and by the grace of  the American goodwill sat on this seat for 8 years July 1957-july 1965. He never once thought what the repercussions would be, or where lay our National policy-on the day Francis Gary power was shot down over U.S.S.R, and after the Soviets had established the origin of his flight-Nikita Khrushchev had called the Pakistani ambassador in Moscow and shown him the encircled in red on the wall map Peshawar City, and assured that Pakistan would suffer dire consequences if it continued such activities-

Should one read the book, ‘My Chief’ by Colonel Mohammad Ahmed-1960-who came in Ayub khans inner circle in 1948-after Ayub was made GOC East Pakistan, as his GSO-ll ,and after Ayub had been assigned his new appointment in 1950- Muhammad Ahmed was made the new Asst. Director Military Intelligence- and in 1955 became the Ayub khan and continued on the same post with Musa Khan. As per his narration Ayub khan was in the good books of Americans from the beginning, by 1953 he was heavily involved with Pentagon-and not only that he had developed good relations with Americans in all walks of life-politicians, economists, journalist. military leaders, diplomats and business magnets-and was in high favor with Admiral  Arthur W.Radford [1896-1973] who was the Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff from 1953-1957,and also with General Nathan Twining who remained Chief of staff of USA Air Force from 1953-1957 and was later Joint Chiefs of Staff-1957-1960-and do keep in mind that the Lockheed U2 Flights had started in 1955.[pages 66-76] Ayub khan keeping in view  the changing world geo-politics on the American side, had timely started convincing the Americans that he was their Man-and so his personal meetings with Secretary of State J.F. Dulles, the foreign aid chief, Harlod E. Stassen-and the American undersecretary General Walter Bedell Smith. In fact the whole team of General D. Eisenhower the 34th American president from 1953-1961.

Gen Gul Hassan is correct,[ref Memoirs]-pg 132/133….’ It is true that the grant of extensions to Ayub Khan had released additional undercurrents and the Rawalpindi Conspiracy Case was never forgotten, especially by Ayub Khan. In the widespread commotion, the possibility of a coup by a general in collusion with some of our rapacious and disillusioned politicians, could not be ruled out. This made sense, particularly when all our generals considered themselves eminently qualified to occupy the C IN C’s chair. In the circumstances, Ayub khan decided that enough was enough. He therefore began removing the potential threat within the army to consolidate his own position…in this process Ayub khan supplemented generals who were at best mediocrities. The new promotes were obviously selected for their tractable characteristics & in this weeding out operation the accumulated experience was lost” ,and so lastly Gen Gul Hassan quotes-Henry James-”Experience is never limited, and it is never complete; it is an immense sensibility, a kind of huge spider-web of the finest silken threads suspended in the chamber of consciousness, and catching every air-borne particle in its tissue”.

According to Gen.Gul Hassan [pg127] ”Thanks to the U.S Military aid which began to flow into the country in 1954,we were able to replace some of the obsolete equipment but it was a painful and gradual turnover, Neither was the quantity as awesome as made out by our implacable neighbour, nor indeed the quality, For example, we received jeeps, which had aged in the Korean War and were supposed to have been reconditioned-The only reconditioning in some cases was a fresh coat of paint-The M 24 light tanks were well past their prime. When I attended a course at Fort Knox in early 1955,these tanks could only be located in the Museums. Likewise the Patton tanks [M 47’s],though of later vintage, they appeared far more menacing when arrayed in our tank parks than when taken out on exercises, where breakdowns were not infrequent, and finally the spare parts and practice ammunition were handed out in a niggardly fashion….”

It seems Ayub Khan had already decided to take over in 1958-as probably his mentors had told him so-which is evident if you read, what General M.Attiqur Rahman has to say on this [ref; Back to Pavilion’-1989/] That in 1958-[keeping in view Ayub Khan was only given his third extension in June 1958,By Malik Feroze Khan Noon, and this time for just Two years]A future plan of action  by the stake holders or a contingency plan for the Army to act upon, if a legal authority called upon it do so-was made-and Attiqur Rahman as the VCGS, Brig.S.G.M Peerzada DMO including Yahya Khan the CGS were involved in the making-Under the guide lines of General Ayub Khan-the plan was worked out on  a ‘D’ Day basis-the key plan was a chronological order of actions that had to be taken-issue of instructions, movement of troops, organizations of HQ’s at Karachi, announcements that had to be made, speeches for the radio, security of key installations-A security plan had also been made for the movement of key personnel to Karachi and elsewhere under cover of normal conferences.

The- DMO [Brig.SGM Peerzada] according to the plan was to move to Karachi from the GHQ-and work under Yahya Khan, days prior to the D’ Day, while Attique and Gen Musa Chief of Staff  were to stay back. Two copies of the whole plan had been prepared, with one in custody of Peerzada and other with Attique each page was marked with serial numbers ,and even on an open land- line. Peerzada was to read out the serial numbers and action on the relevant page was to be done-

Let me remind the readers of my Part-one of this article-”After the typing had ceased and letters checked for any errors all three proceeded to the Military Secretary Office i.e Colonel Nawazish Ali. Shortly later walked in Iskander Mirza and checked the letters. Thereafter walked in Gen. Ayub khan accompanied by Gen. Burk and  Gen. Azam Khan all three saluted Iskander Mirza then Ayub khan said; ”Everything is okay’ Sir-Operation is complete”.

They all shook hands and congratulated each other over the flawless operation, on this note walked in five waiters each with Bottles of whiskey/soda and glasses. Iskander Mirza with a smile on his face after a few sips asked Gen. Ayub,”Ayub, will I be alive tomorrow?”

Ayub Khan walked up to him and put his arm around his back and held him.

So technically the whole operational side of both[night 7/8th Oct & night 27/28 Oct] 1958 coup’s was stage managed by Yahya Khan the CGS and resultantly we find him so close with Ayub Khan, in all subsequent matters.

[To be continued….]


Pakistan: walking the tight rope?

 Cross Post:

ArticleYAACharles M. Schulz was a great cartoonist. His world acclaimed cartoon series of ‘Peanuts’ still remains popular being reprinted again and again. “How can I play baseball when I’m worried about foreign policy?” he asks (The Complete Peanuts, Vol. 6: 1961-1962). Indeed, foreign policy of any country has to be a balancing of many acts, juggling various interests with different desired objectives, many a time at odds with each other. With Pakistan it’s more of walking on a tight rope. The changing geo-political scenario demands a serious formation of a well thought out foreign policy.

On the eve of United States forces exit from next door Afghanistan, Pakistan needs some clear headed thinking to determine its course of relationships in particular with its neighbouring countries. The recent visit of Iranian Interior Minister Abdolreza Rahmani Fazli to Pakistan and PM Nawaz’s subsequent visit to Iran must be seen in the backdrop of its growing cozy relationship with Saudi Arabia. The latter has recently loaned $1.5 billion to Pakistan “to help Islamabad shore up its foreign exchange reserves, meet debt-service obligations and undertake large energy and infrastructure projects.” (Reuters Mar 13, 2014) This was not all. On February 18, 2014, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia signed a $183 million credit agreement. One dealt with the construction of a hydro-power project in Chitral, while the other with the import of urea fertiliser from Saudi Arabia. These overtures are being eyed with great unease by pre-dominantly Shi’a Iran. Particularly as Pakistan decided to support Saudi Arabia in its demand to replace Bashar al Assad’s regime with an interim government in Syria on the same date as the signing of the agreement. Their immediate reaction to signing of the million credit agreement was that on the very same date Iran issued a threat to Pakistan to send forces within its borders should it fail to rescue the five Iranian border guards abducted 10 days prior to these developments. Although it is claimed by a local newspaper that they were kidnapped from Iran’s Sistan-Baluchestan province, adjoining Pakistan.

Iran has increased the numbers of security heads at this border already. According to a report by a local newspaper, “Iran’s police chief has hinted that his country would seal its border with Pakistan any time. “It is very important to ensure security on the eastern border.” (May 5, 2014)

There are a number of thorny issues that will come under consideration during the Prime Minister’s visit to Iran. The gas pipeline between Iran and Pakistan is one. In my op-ed published December 24, 2013 I had written, “There could have been many reasons for Pakistan playing coy on the project; or maybe a mix of reasons. First, Pakistan may have dilly dallied owing to the rates at which it would have had to import the gas from Iran even after the project was completed. The rates would have been high. Much higher than the ability of the average domestic consumer to afford. According to a report by a local newspaper, “Iran itself imports gas from Turkmenistan at USD 4/MMBtu while the price at which it would export to Pakistan is an exorbitant figure of USD 14/MMBtu” (Published 2013-11-09). Added to this is the fact that Iran herself imports gas; seasonal increases in the demand in winter makes it difficult for Iran to supply gas to Turkey as per their needs. “On October 1, Iranian Oil Minister Bijan Namdar Zanganeh himself raised concern about Iran facing serious gas shortage because of slow progress in raising levels of production from South Pars – the field that is supposed to fill the IP pipeline. If such factors were seriously taken into account, the pipeline agreement would likely have never been signed at the first place.” (Published 2013-11-09)Though Iran and Pakistan have agreed to move ahead on this project during Nawaz Sharif’s visit to Iran, offering words to implement the project without taking any steps to do so indefinitely may well raise temperatures.How does Pakistan deflect imposition of economic sanctions by the western countries particularly US if it decides to go ahead is anybody’s guess?

Iran has increased the numbers of security heads at this border already. According to a report by a local newspaper, “Iran’s police chief has hinted that his country would seal its border with Pakistan any time.

Another issue of burning importance to Iran will be Syria. In my op-ed dated September 03, 2013 titled, ‘Syria and the ‘Greater Iran’ I wrote, “There are the religious-geographic dynamics that cannot be overlooked. Hezbollah and Iran in hands with Alawites of Syria have been aiming at reviving the Greater Iran, keeping in view their own schismatic ideology, the effects of which reflect in the current proxy war in Pakistan. The geographic link formed is Hezbollah on one end, Syria and Iraq forming the center with Iran at the other end converging to solidify a unified religious school of thought. Is the Middle East or South Asia ready for the revival of a Greater Iran?”

Pakistan has to walk a tight rope between Iran and Saudi Arabia, the former pre-dominantly Shi’a and the latter pre -dominantly Sunni. Coming back to Afghanistan; Hamid Karzai paid a visit to Iran in December 2013. The visit bore fruit. Both countries signed a “pact of friendship and cooperation”. This agreement between the countries was not a first in recent times. In 2013 both had earlier entered into a security agreement. In yet another of my pieces I wrote, “According to a report 70 per cent of media in the country today is controlled by Iran. Another report by Reuters says Iran spends $100 million a year in Afghanistan, much of it on media, civil society projects and religious schools; quoting Daud Moradian, a former foreign ministry advisor, who now teaches at the American University in Kabul (Published May 24, 2012). The impact of propaganda and one-sided “truth” are immense… Iran had supported non-Taliban groups in 1990s and may revert to doing so yet again. To accept a predominantly Sunni regime in the face of Taliban in power may result in a proxy war, supporting the Afghanistan’s Hazara populace that is mostly Shi’a. Iran’s pursuance of its schismatic policy in Afghanistan will continue to provoke divisions along the fault lines in Afghan society” (Published October 08, 2013).

Iran is not the only country interested in developing friendlier relations with Afghanistan. India too has invested heavily in Afghanistan. “India has donated or helped to build electrical power plants, health facilities for children and amputees, 400 buses and 200 minibuses, and a fleet of aircraft for Ariana Afghan Airlines. India has also been involved in constructing power lines, digging wells, running sanitation projects and using solar energy to light up villages, while Indian telecommunications personnel have built digitised telecommunications networks in 11 provinces. One thousand Afghan students a year have been offered scholarships to Indian universities. India has also played a key role in the construction of a new Afghan parliament in Kabul at a cost of $25 million.”(William Dalrymple: a Brookings Essay titled; A Deadly Triangle: Afghanistan, Pakistan & India)

India has also invested heavily in the Ayni Air Base also known as the ‘Gissar Air Base’ placed 10km west of the capital of Tajikistan-Dushanbe. Not only this; India also has a foothold on the Farkhor Air Base; a military air base. This strategic base is located near the town of Farkhor in Tajikistan. This is roughly 130 kilometers south east of the capital Dushanbe. Aircrafts that take off from Farkhor, need literally minutes to be in Pakistan air space. I had written earlier, “These combined steps places India in a strong position for the ‘new’ great game that is emerging with a changed political landscape in Afghanistan. Islamabad fears; and for good reason that an India and Tajikistan nexus will lead to an infiltration via Afghanistan, using an unprotected western flank that will “encircle” Pakistan, cutting off oxygen. What Pakistan must do; is to redraw its foreign policy.”

In this scenario, Pakistan needs to marry together short and long term balanced and well thought out foreign policy. Pakistan must rise to the occasion.

The writer is a lawyer, academic and political analyst. She has authored a book titled ‘A Comparative Analysis of Media & Media Laws in Pakistan.’ She can be contacted at: and tweets at @yasmeen_9.

India’s incoherent election?


ArticleYAABJP is in with a landslide victory of 283 seats. It is the first time in nearly 30 years that any party has swept in with such an awesome majority as a single party. BJP walked away with 66 seats in Uttar Pradesh allowing Samajwadi party only nine seats. BJP bagged all of 26 seats in Gujarat, which is Modi’s home turf. His party also bagged all seats in Rajasthan; 26 in number. In Bihar too, the BJP won 24 seats upsetting Janata Dal United party which only managed to scrape together four seats. Congress faced the biggest defeat in elections 2014.

“President Obama on Friday telephoned prime minister-designate Narendra Modi and invited him to visit Washington at a mutually agreeable time to further strengthen bilateral ties between the two countries”. (The Times of India May 17, 2014) All this and more will come. The BJP’s sweep into power may be reason for celebrations — but it points towards one clear factor; expectations of Indians from the incoming dispensation. K Hussan Zia, author of “Pakistan: Roots, Perspective and Genesis” and “Muslims and the West: A Muslim Perspective” in a mail to me wrote, “There is a reality about India that is generally not appreciated. Internally it is an unholy mess. The administrative set up that kept the country together under the British is now in tatters. By some estimates government writ no longer prevails in 40 per cent of India where Naxalites and other such outfits hold sway. More than that, her regional diversity made worse by such ruthless actions as the killing of hundreds of thousands of Sikhs and Kashmiris is taking its toll in pulling the country apart. Add to all this the fact that two thirds of its 1.3 billion population lives below the poverty line and you have a powder keg ready to explode. The only way Mr Modi can buy some time is by using the tested method of keeping the attention of the people diverted towards an outside threat. For that purpose Pakistan must be the obvious choice. India needs Pakistan as the enemy if it is to stay together. Mr Modi, like his predecessors, will gladly accept whatever concessions Pakistan may make but the basic situation will not change. We also must remember that Mr Modi owes his success to his Hindu communalist agenda. There are seven million trained RSS cadres totally committed to ‘purifying’ India. They see Muslims, Christians and even Sikhs as an abomination. Modi has neither a way of ignoring this nor probably any desire to do so either. We must not entertain any unrealistic hopes. There is rough weather lying ahead. It is time to batten down hatches and prepare for the worse to come. This will save us from nasty surprises that may be in store otherwise.”

Modi and his party needs to look inwards towards trying to address the issues faced by India. Turning the direction of fire towards Pakistan will only take him that far before back firing.

In a moving piece, Ira Trivedi writes, “It is in Varanasi that I meet Ram Paswan. He runs a shop selling materials for cremating dead bodies. (Varanasi is also where Hindus go to die, so his is a lucrative business). Paswan, who has long been a supporter of the Hindu-nationalist BharatiyaJanata Party (BJP), is thrilled that Modi, the future prime minister, ran from his city. His neighbour, Alam Khan, who runs a barbershop, is not. Khan belongs to the 19 percent of Varanasi’s population that is Muslim and which sees Modi, who has been charged with complicity in the 2002 riots and pogroms against Muslims in Gujarat, as dangerous. Hindus and Muslims have co-existed peacefully in Varanasi for centuries. But Modi’s campaign there has changed things, creating a rift between Paswan and Khan — and between many others. ‘My religion comes before my friendship,’ Alam tells me. ‘We don’t have too many options in this election, but Modi is not the right choice for our people’”. She goes on to say, “But in this election, Modi’s economic track record is almost beside the point. He might have emphasised growth, development, and industrialisation, but the BJP, at its base, is a Hindu-nationalist party”. (Foreign Affairs May 15, 2014)

An overwhelmingly clear mandate means a higher graph of expectations. The Hindu Business Line writes, “The landslide victory for the BJP has raised the hopes of the industry honchos who are hoping that the mandate will be used by the new government to push through tough economic reforms”. The paper shares view by Vineet Nayar, Founder, Sampark Foundation & Former CEO, HCL Technologies,“As 800 million Indians exercised their vote in the largest democracy of the world, debates, comments and opinions have been simmering in every kitchen this past month… In my view, the new leadership needs to focus on three broad areas. First, deliver efficient governance at the bottom of the pyramid so that every Indian feels the change which he or she has voted for. Two, drive effectiveness in executing programs and policies already in place so that the wheels of the government move much, much faster and we see a sense of urgency to get things done… Three, define and execute on a bigger, bolder vision for the country that gives India a competitive advantage in the global markets of trade, commerce and share of voice in key decisions that impact the world. Lastly, our young population is the biggest mass of our national identity and competitiveness and the focus of our nation should be around enabling, enthusing and empowering them. If we can build their knowledge and skills, they will become tremendous economic assets otherwise they will be relegated as cheap labour and consumers for the west’s production engine and we will continue to be an ‘emerging nation’ forever.”

The point I’m trying to make here is an interesting contradiction between what the Indians expect of their new leadership and the core approach of Modi — here; there is many a slip between the cup and the lip. Varghese K George says, “The BJP had put its hardcore Hindutva agenda on the backburner when it began alliance building in 1996, but with absolute numbers on its side, the demand from within to bring these up may rise”. (The Hindu) Though Modi had assured the Indians against such an event happening let us not forget that was before the elections.

Focusing on religion based agenda will not work. It was not just Hindus that voted for Modi. That much is obvious.

Modi and his party needs to look inwards towards trying to address the issues faced by India. Turning the direction of fire towards Pakistan will only take him that far before back firing. The information explosion bringing down the geographical boundaries has taken care of that. Ram Mashru, writing for The Diplomat, states, “A major survey carried out by the University of Pennsylvania, serialised by The Times of India in March, found that economic growth was the issue at the heart of India’s elections. More than half of India’s populations are below the age of 26, GDP growth has stagnated at the five per cent mark, and India’s central bank has failed to tie a leash around inflation. Disappointing economic conditions, coupled with widespread anger at the incumbent left-wing coalition’s failure to revive the country’s economy, have boosted Modi’s stock”. (May 15, 2014) The view is supported by William Dalrymple, “A series of voter surveys has shown that concern over the collapse of the Indian economy is the single most important factor in this election for almost all voters, of all religions, whether urban and rural”. (The Guardian, 12 MAY, 2014)

Focusing on religion based agenda will not work. It was not just Hindus that voted for Modi. That much is obvious. The voters converged from a cross spectrum of religious beliefs to stand together for a better future. The plans have to be fairly basic, notwithstanding the Bollywood glitz which is not a true reflection of India by any standards; people hanker after economic development that filters down to their lives. With such a heavy mandate; the buck cannot be passed on.

Can Modi deliver?

The writer is a lawyer, academic and political analyst. She has authored a book titled ‘A Comparative Analysis of Media & Media Laws in Pakistan.’ She is also member Task Force formed under Standing Committee on Information, Broadcasting & heritage (National Assembly) formed to review & amend media laws of Pakistan. She can be contacted at: and tweets at @yasmeen_9.

The Pakistan Coup detat of 1958: Part III

You can read: ‘The Pakistan  Coup detat of  1958: Part 1 on by clicking the link:

You can read: ‘The Pakistan  Coup detat of  1958: Part 11 on by clicking the link:

Naveed PicNaveed Tajammal

Before proceeding further we must analyses the mess our founding fathers had created and how the Gang manipulated and delayed the Constitution making-and later abrogated it-when and where  it suited them. The Independence Act of 1947- Had clearly laid down a quasi-federal parliamentary system-Section 8 laid down for the both the new states a ruling, that until the constitution was farmed, the interim arrangements for the country would be as laid down in GOI Act of 1935,and the this Act’ was based on the Report of Simon Commission ,published in two volumes in May 1930.Which had been vehemently resisted by Public at large since its inception in 1928,The Act of 1935 had 321 sections with 10 schedules and was custom made for the British Indian Empire’s shenanigans, lastly it was the longest ever legislation passed by the British Parliament. But Remember it was made for the never ending rule of the Empire-Second World war had yet to come. These were the carrots put before the public from time to time to defuse a alarming situation, when it reached a peak.

Now we must study briefly about the Constituent Assembly which was first convened on 11 Aug 1947-The members of this August Assembly were those who had been elected in the General Elections of British Indian Empire in 1945/46.After the end of 2nd world war in Asia on 02 September 1945 and final surrender of Japanese forces in Burma on 13 September 1945-On the 19th September 1945-The then Viceroy-Lord Wavell  of the British Indian Empire announced that the General Elections, would be held between December 1945 and January 1946-and would cover both the seats for the Central and Provincial legislatures-the end result was that, the Muslim League could form its ministries only in Bengal and Sind Provinces-Punjab was with a coalition, of Congress, unionist and Sikh Alkalis’ NWFP and was with Congress till Aug 1947-It were these elected members-who had opted to stay back after 14 Aug 1947 in both the wings who became the members of our  future constitution making mechanism-Having Constituted this Constituent Assembly, everybody got busy in the newly created state of Pakistan, enjoying the perks and so were these members who were entrusted and they willfully delayed the Constitution making till this Constituent Assembly was dissolved on 24 Oct 1954-each group had its own vested interests in the delay.

It was not until 23rd March 1956 that a new constitution could be introduced. The priority of making a constitution it seems was never a priority. Our Anglophile ruled supreme and preferred living under their Queen.

 The constitution of India was adopted on 26 November 1949-which made it in a sovereign state, however it came in effect on 26 Jan 1950-[the date 26 January- was adopted by the Ruling Indian Congress party, because on 26 Jan 1930-the congress had made the declaration of Indian Independence].After this date India ceased to be a Dominion of the British Crown.

Whereas the best that could be done by our Constituent Assembly members tasked with making our Constitution-was to pass the Objective resolution on 07 March 1949,which was supposed to set the frame work for the future constitution. Shortly thereafter on 12 March 1949,the Assembly appointed a Basic Principles Committee [BPC]-which further made three more Sub-Committee’s each heading the following three [1] The Federal Constitution and distribution of power [2] Franchise [3] The role of Judiciary. It was only on 07 September 1950, that the BPC presented its interim report that too was the work of the First Sub-Committee, which submitted its recommendations on a proposed Federal structure. Addressing a rally in Lahore on October 14, 1950, Maulana Maududi demanded its dissolution, arguing that the ‘Lamp-post legislators’ were incapable of drawing up an Islamic constitution.

The political canvas of Pakistan in the post 1947 era was overshadowed by feudal’ fattened by the departure of the Hindu and Sikh money lenders who had them in their vice grip-and likewise, after the departure of the Hindu and Sikh larger landowners, these former Crown lackeys had put their claws in their properties as well Liaqat Ali Khan instead of addressing the issue as had the Indians done-by doing away with their 545 States and such like lot-joined the Mafia, for his own survival & after the death of Mr. Jinnah things worsen. The result of his weakness proved disastrous for the country-As he failed to give a constitution to the country. However, Liaqat Ali Khan as was seen manipulated the same constituent Assembly where it suited him-and served his ends-as was seen in the case of officers involved in the Coup of 1951-A Bill to try these Army Officers was introduced in the Constituent Assembly on 13 April 1951-termed as ‘The Rawalpindi Conspiracy- Special Tribunal Bill’. On the morning of 16 April it was passed-but not before a heated discussion on it-by the opposition members. According to the opposition, all from the Bengali leaders- led by Mr. Dhirendranath Datta, that, ”it abrogated the rights of the accused, which was contrary to the normal laws’- the Bill was a mockery to justice, on a point of order Dhirendranath, further stated, being a lawyer himself, that, ‘This bill was out to amend provisions of Code of Criminal Law procedures, the Evidence Act and the Army Act, therefore, it came under the competence of the Federal Legislature and certainly Not under the propriety of the Constituent Assembly-as had been had wrongly done so, with mala fide intentions. Dhirendranath further argued that, ‘under the Constituent assembly of Pakistan procedure rules, a bill could be introduced in the Constituent assembly for purpose of making the constitution or amending the Independence Act or amending the Government of India Act 1935,which was adapted in Pakistan, as an interim constitutional framework of the country.

The crux of all these shenanigans by Liaqat Ali Khan which resulted in bulldozing the fundamental rights was the First of its kind-and totally at variance with the prevailing liberal laws current in the country till this Act was enforced.

This Act abrogated the rights of the accused, it relaxed the standards of prosecution evidence and laid stringent trial procedures to suit the prosecution side alone.

All this was done at the expense of sound principles of criminal administration and the so-called Democratic Government of Liaqat Ali Khan in our formative period of independence-the end result was that it set the First Tradition of bad governance and a total disregard for the human fundamental rights.

And so it became the foundation of each successive regime Military or Civil to twist and turn laws to make more repressive laws, rules and practices so started a chain of perverting policies in our politics-which resulted in perverting the course of justice.

The constitutional vacuum left by Liaqat Ali Khan strengthened the hold of feudalism and bureaucracy on the country-Both groups were Fascists in their outlook and paid only lip service to the central state-After the death of Liaqat Ali khan-in his shoes stepped Ghulam Mohammad and his buddy Iskandar Mirza both were bureaucrats turned politicians and hovering in the background in his sly manner remained Ayub Khan,-Sadly the Bengali Group led by Kh.Nazimuddin who technically represented the Majority was  outmaneuvered  by these three clever manipulators, each one bidding his own time to strike Khawaja Nazimuddin though a good man was  made a scape goat-by a conspiracy hatched between the trio-as the day Liaqat Ali Khan had died Ghulam Mohammad was in Rawalpindi-and Khawaja Nazimuddin was in Nathiagali -and instead that the successor of Liaqat Ali Khan be chosen by the party in power, Ghulam Mohammad the finance minister became the Governor-General and the Governor General was demoted and became the Prime Minister-all this was done by an announcement, that the cabinet had so decided. Kh. Nazimuddin suffered as he had not bothered to establish his networking in the bureaucracy nor in the Army-and had neither any influence over industry and trade of the country, which from the inception of Pakistan had been ‘monopolized’ by ‘Khojas’ & ‘memos’ from Maharashtra and Gujrat, who were mostly resident in Karachi and Decca followed by the Delhi Saudagara’an  Mafia and the balance were the hide & skin merchants of Bengal, Madras and Bombay presidencies who all had timely flocked in to do the pickings- They all had their mentors in both the wings-so Kh. Nazimuddin was left high and dry.


Meanwhile serious political unrest had been brewing up due to chronic food shortage, which were the result of the economic policies of Ghulam Mohammad who was serving many masters-All these setbacks were now attributed to Kh.Nazimuddin-and he was openly being called as the ‘Quaid e Qillat’ [Leader of scarcity].meanwhile Ayub Khan,  Iskandar Mirza and Ghulam Mohammad played their games-The start of 1953 saw widespread disturbances in the country-resulting in the imposition of Martial Law-a situation which could have been handled as was seen in Karachi-on 21st January 1953,when a deputation of Ulema authorized by ‘Majlis-i-Amal ‘constituted by All Pakistan Muslim Parties Convention held in Karachi from 16th to 18th January 1953,delivered its ultimatum to Kh. Nazimuddin to declare the Qadiani as a non-Muslim minority and inclusive of Ch. Zafrullah who was the Foreign Minister and as well all those in Civil & Military Services of the same creed be removed from the offices within one month. Otherwise they would resort to direct action. However in a meeting held on 27 Feb 1953 it was decided to reject the ultimatum and to arrest the prominent members of the Majlis- i- Amal in Karachi and from various parts in the Punjab.

 Iskandar Mirza being the Secretary Defense was the leader- and Ayub Khan seeing the situation ideal- both pressurized Kh. Nazimuddin that Martial Law be imposed in Lahore-taking his consent Iskandar Mirza ordered the Deputy Chief of General Staff, General Musa Khan to dispatch the Sialkot Division to Lahore to reinforce General Azam Khan, military occupation of Lahore took place on 6th  March 1953,Governor General Ghulam Mohammad replaced Mumtaz Daultana as the chief Minister and Malik Feroze khan Noon took over, subsequently, he asked Kh.Nazimudin to resign which he refused on 17 April 1953.And so Ghulam Mohammad used the Section 10 of Government of India Act of 1935,by announcing ,that, he was pleased to dismiss his Prime Minister Kh.Nazimuddin appealed to the Queen of England  as the constitutional Sovereign of Pakistan-and his plea fell on deaf ears.

Kh. Nazimuddin was treated thereafter very shabbily, and on the Advice of Ch. Zaffarullah the F.M. Mohammad Ali Bogra who was the Ambassador in Washington and a Bengali was recalled and installed as the Prime Minster. on this installation H. M. Abbasi one of the most outstanding journalist of his time writes-in his book -which is a collection of his articles,’Over a Cup of Tea’ page-264,’…..Ghulam Mohammad after sending away Kh. Nazimuddin got his stooge Mohammad Ali Bogra in his place. When he tried to show a little independence, Iskandar Mirza and Ayub Khan received him at the Airport, and took him to the Governor-General House treated him roughly long enough to make him promise to do everything they ordered”.

It should be pertinent for the readers to know of the sincere  efforts of the brother of Ayub Khan-Sardar Bahadar Khan in building the career of Ayub Khan-Iskandar Mirza remained throughout his civil service career in NWFP and was D.C. of  Hazara and Peshawar District’s ,and Sardar Bahadar after getting his L.L.B degree from Aligarh ,joined the Muslim League-and was elected in a by-election in 1939 from Haripur and in 1942 he was the  speaker of NWFP Assembly and was re-elected in the 1945/46 General elections, The Indian National Congress under Dr. Khan Sahib won the 1946 elections despite a strong showing by the Muslim League The first session of parliament was summoned on 12 March 1946 under the Chairmanship of Sardar Bahadur Khan while Nawabzada Allah Nawaz Khan was elected as Speaker and Lala Girdheri Lal as Deputy Speaker on 13 March 1946..After 14 Aug 1947 He had joined the Govt. of Liaqat Ali Khan as the Minister of State for Foreign Affairs, Commonwealth Relations and Communications in 1949 he was promoted to be a  Cabinet Minister. And later, He served as Minister for Communications in the cabinets of multiple Prime Ministers: After demise of Liaqat Ali Khan he joined the Govt. of Kh. Nazimuddin, and as well the Govt of Mohammad Ali Bogra as a Cabinet Minister throughout their tenures- he was the Agent to Governor General of Balluchistan from 08 November 1954 to 19 July 1955.and later was made the Chief Minister of NWFP a office he held till 14 Oct 1955,when it was merged in one unit. After the 1962 Elections he became the leader of opposition in the National Assembly-Thus Ayub Khan had his own kitchen opposition-Therefore one should understand who the actual mentor of Ayub Khan was. About his active role in politics, the glimpse can be seen of his manipulation, the readers are advised to read, ‘Mohammad Ayub Khuhro’ published by Ferozesons in 1998.

[To be continued…]

The Pakistan Coup detat of 1958: Part II

A Pakpotpourri Exclusive

You can read: ‘The Pakistan  Coup detat of  1958: Part 1 on by clicking the link:

Naveed PicBy Naveed Tajammal

As stated before there were no cogent reasons for both the coups i.e that of 07/08 Oct & 27/28 Oct 1958-Other than sheer greed for more power. If you even take a cursory glance at the development, between 1947 & 1958 it proves how, the later false the propaganda was done by the Ayub Khan Regime to show its Golden 10 years-[1958-1968]The first phase of development, was complete by 1958,indeed Robber Barons had been created with free funds. However, the Industry had come up-literally from a ground zero like position- Do keep in mind that two 5 Year plans, from 1947 onward had been planned till 1960-and funds ear-marked The data below just gives glimpse of a few salient features.

In 1947 at the time of our Independence our total textile industry had only 177,418 spindles and 4,824 looms in 1958 there were 1,844,000 spindles and 28,000 looms. Although Pakistan was harvesting 6 million bales of raw jute in 1947-All jute was sent to Calcutta before independence where partly it was processed and the rest sent within the British Empire’s industrial units abroad. Likewise all other produce of East Bengal, which was surplus to its requirements was again sent to Calcutta-and it would not be an exaggeration, that the prosperity of Calcutta as the Capital of former British Indian Empire had been built on the exploitation of the resources of East Pakistan [East Bengal].

East Pakistan which did not even have a single jute loom in 1947-had  by 1958-8,000 jute looms and which were producing 1,50,000 tons of jute manufactures. The port of Chittagong was so small that it could only handle 0.5 million tons per annum, in 1958 it was handling 2.5 million tons. As the port of Chittagong was built almost anew with new quay walls, new cranes and new goods sheds, the project had cost $ 20 million, work on the new Chalna port ,later it was shifted to Mongla in East Pakistan ,and work was finished in 1954,and was taking almost one million tons of goods. The raw cotton produced in West Pakistan regions in pre-Independence was fully transported to Bombay-Ahmedabad and Cawnpore Finished cloth was re-shipped, from these three cities for local consumption.

In 1947-there was not a single spindle producing woolen goods-by 1958,there were 13,700 spindle producing about 18 million lbs. of woolen yarns-which were equal in quality with imported woolen cloth. There was only one hydrogenated oil factory producing 2,500 tons of vegetables product. In 1958 there arose 6 more factories producing 20,000 tons per annum. Sugar produced in West Pakistan in 1947 was 7,932 tons, by1958 the production was 123,558 tons. In East Pakistan 5 mini sugar mills were producing 23,061 tons of sugar, by 1958 with an addition of 3 large sugar mills there was a addition of another 30,000 tons.

There was no cigarettes factory in Pakistan in 1947-by1958,Six new factories were set up in West Pakistan and two in East Pakistan-total cigarettes production was 7469.7 million. In East Pakistan Karnaphuli Paper mills ,established by PIDC had come in production by 1953 producing 30,000 tons, the biggest than in Asia-though it is amazing why Ayub Khan, handed away on a platter, this unit to the Dawood group in 1964.

Beco was set up in 1951-At Badamibagh Lahore, with the help of European & American technology it had started producing high quality machine tools, pumps, power looms, concrete mixers cranes, power presses, electric motors ,by-cycles, steel rolled products, electric transmission towers and structure & general fabrication. Local indigenous mechanical & electrical units had started the manufacture of 20 H.P. Centrifugal Pumps-along with 20 H.P. Electric Motors, and electric fan industry too had emerged, and other electric goods were also being made. In Karachi production of electric cable manufacture and electric bulbs had started, the German Firm A.E.G had set up a unit which was making electric motors, transformers and other heavy electric gear, a Swedish firm was producing packing material and packages for cigarettes, tea and pharmaceutical industries, American General Mills had set up a plant in Karachi to produce gum of local raw material. Glass industry too had emerged in both the wings, inclusive of sheet glass. The cement production in 1947 was barely 325,000 tons by 1958 it was producing 1,000,000 tons. Two of these new factories had been financed through the Colombo plan-and generous aid given by Governments of Canada and New Zealand. And were producing under Maple Leaf & Zeal-Pak Cement-and were being expanded as per the second 5 year plan to add 200,000 tons more in the total Cement production.

Plastic, pencil, high grade board, card board etc etc industries had started their production much earlier in 1950’s,Assembly plants for cars, trucks, radios etc had already been set up. The Sports goods industry had done a tremendous work and expanded very fast by 1958 was earning in those days value of dollars-$ 2.70 million. Pharmaceutical industries had been set up, some were manufacturing drugs and others repacking them-all the same the industry had started to work, a Penicillin plant was under erection, whereas the D.D.T plant was already in production, both the plants had been financed by UNICEF, as to the role of multinational companies like I.C.I had been operating the soda ash plant at P.D. Khan ,in 1944,however it was in 1952 that they started fully investing in Pakistan, Unilever had set up its main plant in Rahim Yar Khan in 1948-with it came its wide range of soaps and detergents and Ghee and oil products. Plants producing caustic soda were set up. Sulphuric acid plants were set up in both wings, with plant producing Alum, the fertilizer production of ammonium sulphate had reached 50,000 tons. Two more plants in both the wings were under erection and installation and each would produce 100,000 tons, thus bringing total to 250,000 tons.

Bayer’s multinational company was in process of setting up its plant of basic dyes. Many small cottage industries had sprung up. Handloom textiles were being exported to U.S.A. The Pakistani-Surgical instruments, too had established their market in the world.

The Government of Pakistan had already established in collaboration with foreign firms two industries, the First being the Security Printing Press, with the help of De La Rue’s as partners, this press had started the printing of our currency notes-The second was a collaboration with Siemens to produce telephone instruments and telephone exchanges. Vegetable oil total production had reached 100,000 tons by 1958.Sui Gas pipe line till Karachi had been completed by 1955, another had reached Multan, and this line was laid to feed the Multan Electric Company and the Fertilizer Plant. And the third had been earmarked for Lahore and Lyallpur [Faisalabad]-A small natural gas pipe line had been laid extracting gas from the oil fields of Rawalpindi region and was supplying 6 million cubic feet of gas per day. In East Pakistan the major share of Gas was being utilized by the Fertilizer plant, and Cement Factory at Chhattak. The production of gypsum arose from 1947 [15,866]to 64,064 tons in 1958,coal production arose from 358,000 tons to 516,000 tons, limestone from 341,000 to 913,900 tons, crude petroleum from 13.2 million Imp Gallons to 76.9 million Imp Gallons. Negotiations with different foreign, companies were under way to set up an Oil Refinery.

At the Time of our Independence due to War efforts and maximum bulk of transportation done via the Railways-and the British seeing the changing tides after 1945 had stopped investing in this sector-The  track and rolling stocks had suffered very badly and were considerably run down-Pakistan after 1947 had to undertake a large scale urgent repairs programme-Pakistan obtained two loans of $ 27.2 million and $31.1 million from International Bank for Reconstruction and development, and with these loans had bought diesel electric engines, wagons, carriages and track material-in addition USA also assisted the Railways by financing the purchase of diesel electric engines. The Govt of Australia too gave in AID a large number of diesel electric engines-It had been envisaged that a further $ 140 million  was required to fully restore the Railways because of neglect and usage in the 6 years of second world war.

It would be interesting to note that in 1948/49 the goods carried in East Pakistan Railways were 3,838,000 tons in 1956/57 they were 4,603,000 tons, in West Pakistan the Railways carried ,in 1948/49 6,356,000 tons and in 1956/57 it was  10,866,000 tons, the passenger traffic in East Pakistan in 1948/49 was 67,500,000 and in 1956/57 it had increased to 86,783,000,in West Pakistan it was 71,654,000 in 1948/49 and by 1956/57 it had increased to 95,535,000.It was a dedicated team work of Railways that in spite of faults within they carried on the their Job.

Pakistan hardly had any Shipping in 1947-the gross tonnage was 6,000 tons, by 1958 it was near 162,370 tons, in 1957/58 Pakistan had acquired 10 ships with 64,629 tonnage. As the distance between Karachi and Chittagong was 2500 miles the need for Airway Cargo was felt so a fleet of super constellations was operating 8 services/week by 1958,for flight passengers, there was an addition of 5 new viscount planes, out  of which 3 were already in service.

Post, telegraph and telephone services had been upgraded substantially since Independence, The assets in 1947 were only 36.5 million rupees, by end of 1957, they had arisen to 244.8 million rupees. There were only 15,000 telephone connections in 1947 by end of 1957 there were 56,000.

At the time of Independence there were only a few banks registered in Pakistan, except for Habib Bank, other banks were very small having a total capital of no more than two million rupees. National Bank of Pakistan was started by GOP in March 1950-The Govt was using this bank for financing of food grains and it was helped by the State Bank with funds, the deposits of NBP stood at 755 million rupees in December 1958.

Soon after Independence 8 million refugees migrated to Pakistan and those who left were less than 5 million, it was these 8 million who had to be adjusted. The GOP set up a Refugees Rehabilitation Finance Corporation by an Act of Parliament, a total of 40 million rupees was loaned to these refugees to establish them in small trades and industries besides the lion share of lands and properties which came under evacuee properties.

Karachi as per 1941 Census had 400,000 people, even in 1947 it had swelled to 4.5 Lakh only, by 1957/58 it was hovering at 1.78 million. When GOP decided to make Karachi as its capital it had neither accommodation nor offices. The GOP set up a HBFC [House building finance corporation] till 1958 it had given loaned out 52.8 million rupees. To finance industries PIFC [Pakistan Industrial Finance Corporation] was established by 1958 120 million  rupees, had been given to borrowers.

PICIC [Pakistan Industrial Credit Investment Corporation], had been established likewise-The International Bank had given it a loan of $4.2 million. U.S Govt gave it three million rupees while U.K. gave three million and Japan two million, as industry grew USA gave a further loan of 30 million rupees, and State Bank injected another 30 million rupees.

Numerous Co-operative Banks and Co-operative societies had been established all over the both wings. Agriculture Finance Corporation had been established in 1953, by 1958 it had loaned out 14.7 million rupees. As Pakistan had 100,000 villages it was felt that Agriculture Bank was needed so in 1957, this Bank was established.

A Land Reform Commission was established in 1957 and in Jan 1958,the Commission presented its report to the GOP, after one week deliberation the GOP accepted the recommendation, The Commission had ruled a law, by which compensation was to be given to the landlords on a sliding scale, the smaller the landholding the better the compensation, the commission had recommended,500 acres of good irrigated land or 1000 acres of un-irrigated  to each landlord-The surplus land of landlord was to be distributed to the tenants, who were to pay the price in easy installments, and become the owners, to stop the fragmentation of land, a minimum holding of 50 acres was fixed which could not be reduced either by gift or sale [Agriculture-Ch v, ”Ajj Aur Kul”-Syed.Amjad Ali,1959.]

After Independence Pakistan became, what USA had faced in the 19th century, because of the Gold Rush -all small time Muslim-traders spread throughout the length and breadth of British Indian Empire even from Burma and Singapore Converged into both the wings-Gustav F Papanek, the author of the book, ‘Pakistan’s : Development-Social Goals & Private incentives’ Harvard University -1967,who had interviewed the Top 100 people in our Industry in 1958/59,amongst them were the famous 22 Families too, found that only 17 out of 100 had some experience of Running a industry-rest were all Traders and exporters, mainly of Hides & Skins.

Gustav Papanek-remained associated with our Planning Commission from 1954 onward-as the Project Field Supervisor to the Harvard Advisory Group attached with the Planning Commission.

Massive concentration of wealth the coffers of a few about which rumours,had been circulating since mid-1950’s,became a reality, after the report of a Credit Inquiry Committee of State Bank of Pakistan, revealed that, in all, only 222 individual depositors in both the wings were making use of 2/3rd of the total credit facilities offered by the banking system, earlier Gustav Papanek too had observed that out of total 3,000 firms/companies established in Pakistan since 1947 till late 1950’s-Only 24 out of 3000 Controlled nearly half of the Industrial Assets within Pakistan. The massive industrialization done between 1947 from ground zero like conditions till Ayub Khan took over, resulted in utter chaos under his Thumb Rule-Ayub Khan became a puppet in their hands-the result was that between 1959 to 1965 these few families had gained total monopolies in our country-it was then that Dr. Mahboob ul Haq had made his famous speech in Karachi in 1965,being the Chief Economist with the Planning Commission, he had stated that Pakistani economy was dominated by just 22 odd families who owned 66 % of the total industrial assets,70 % of insurance & 80 % of the banking.

This concentration of wealth became one of the causes of effective slogans raised by separatists of East Pakistan and was,also the political slogan of  ZAB & his PPP, which led to badly handled-Nationalization.

[To be continued]

No pot shots at media


ArticleYAAMajor Amir left Taliban Talks in April this month. What caught my eye though was the reason why he decided to do so. The reason was ‘media hype’ created.(Pakistan Today April 29, 2014) “ The government peace process with the banned Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan(TTP) suffered a major blow as a key player of the dialogue process , Major® Mohammad Amir, quit the dialogue process in protest against the ‘unabated media hype’ created by some members of the Taliban negotiating panel  for ‘personal projection’ and ‘party agendas’ reports the newspaper. The report continued to share, “Making premature announcements about the release of prisoners and alleging that the government’s negotiators did not make demands for release of civilians held captive by militants may further damage the confidence-building measures.”

The news did not come as a surprise. Something like this was anticipated as pointed out in my op-ed published March 3, 2014.  I had categorically pointed out the possibility of a media hype and its cascading effects, “The failure of recent talks may have been a result of b) Reporting of every ongoing step or lack of it in media, making rigidity of positions inevitable.”

We need to look at the picture here closely without taking pot shots at the media. The picture reflects certain facts. Fact one is that any media on commercial basis depends largely on advertising given to the channel. The reason I choose to focus more on the electronic medium of communication is simple. In today’s world, electronic media has emerged as the main opinion maker. In a country like Pakistan, with low literacy rate, television is not only accessible but viewed across the different income and education strata.

The competition between channels is vicious. Higher the viewing the higher the rating. Higher the rating, higher the commercial success and advertising benefits. The game revolves around finances, pure and simple. News has generally speaking become more sensationalized tailored to gain more viewers. A very interesting observation is the negligible difference in style between newspaper and television journalism in Pakistan. In newspaper writing, words must resurrect the happening for the readers. The written communication both in form of news and views must convey in words the details that cannot be shown in celluloid as on television. This style is suitable owing to the nature of the medium of communication. However, one observes the same style being followed on television whereas the viewer can see an event live or recorded. The viewer can see an event happening and can gage the enormity or impact of an event, the body language of participants so on and so forth. However, we see the newscaster translating the visual happening in great depth and detail that is unwarranted for the visual medium of communication.

When a news channel runs 24/7 it needs news to telecast. The over indulgence of “breaking news” whether or not it merits the label has become a norm. In case of any event happening, most channels will be in variance with each other in case of numbers reported of let’s say; casualties. In the hurry to release the news, verifying news may often be ignored. In order to generate interest of the public, checks by the organization based on comprehensive editorial policies is mandatory. Does the need of editorial policies get nudged out owing to a desire for increased ratings? Who suffers in the end?

This brings me to yet another question. Where do we teach media ethics to our journalists we expect them to practice? Yes, we teach it as a mandatory course as part of syllabus of Mass Communications but how many enter the field after a masters or a bachelor’s degree in the subject? How do they learn? The answer is they don’t.  I quote from my book; ‘A Comparative Analysis of Media and Media Laws in Pakistan,’ from the chapter of electronic media, “There is a strong tendency by the media to reflect and keep on reflecting, thereby sensationalizing issues, till something juicier comes along, on murders, kidnappings, rapes. Showing the relatives of the victims beating their chest crying, wailing.  This kind of news are sought and covered, not because of the national importance but because it is thought, it will attract better viewership. Poor coverage of important issues is another. Converting non-issues into issues unfortunately happens. Earlier, I had mentioned what is in public interest and what the public may want to see can be mutually exclusive of each other. The “real” issues take a hit and are often relegated to the back burner because “issues” that may be either non-issues or minor issues are promoted as “the” issues. If talk shows are being aired, incessantly, they would more often deal with petty bickering, screaming matches between opponents invited, also leading to colorful exchange of abuses, rather than policy matters or a constructive discussion.”

The purpose here is not to take pot shots at media. Not at all and I do beg your pardon if such an erroneous impression is created.

PEMRA Ordinance 2002, Clause 20 sub clause “(b) ensure preservation of the national, cultural, social and religious values and the principles of public policy as enshrined in the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.” However, how do these ideals translate into the job description of a programme editor? Or a camera- man? Or a reporter? In the absence of any one to translate them either in form of an effective editorial policy and in the shape of training; it does not.

The important thing to understand is; greater freedom to voice opinion demands greater responsibility. Freedom to voice opinion world over is marked with certain universally acceptable limitations like hate speech, racism, defamation, copyrights, incitement to offence, obscenity, profanity, perjury, treason, invasion of privacy, abetting terrorism so on and so forth.  There is nothing like an open ended cheque without any limitations. Freedom of expression, like any other liberty, brings with itself a very heavy responsibility, on the shoulders of all of those exercising that right and in particular upon those who are placed in positions to influence policies, impact and form public opinion. Free media; yes! But a responsible free media please.

William O. Douglas of the Supreme Court of the United States in the judgment of Beauharnais v. Illinois, 342 U.S. 250, 287 (1952) recorded, “The framers of the constitution knew human nature as well as we do. They too had lived in dangerous days; they too knew the suffocating influence of orthodoxy and standardized thought. They weighed the compulsions for restrained speech and thought against the abuses of liberty. They chose liberty.”

The writer is a lawyer, academic and political analyst. She has authored a book titled ‘A Comparative Analysis of Media & Media Laws in Pakistan.’ She can be contacted at: and tweets at @yasmeen_9.

Published in Pakistan Today on 6/May/2014

Death of integrity



Without exonerating culprits, we need to ask ourselves a question: Do we possess the integrity we demand of our politicians?


We lament the increasing lack of integrity in our leaders. From submitting fake degrees to the ECP (in many cases) to scams of all shades and hues, the list is endless. Every stone turned reveals one. Without exonerating culprits, we need to ask ourselves a question: Do we possess the integrity we demand of our politicians?

Urban Dictionary gives an extremely interesting definition of integrity, ‘Doing the right thing even when nobody’s looking.’ On a more formal note, it offers another definition, ‘Steadfast adherence to a strict moral or ethical code.’ Ethical code is generally defined as, ‘a system of principles governing morality and acceptable conduct,’ and a moral code as, ‘the quality of being in accord with standards of right or good conduct.’

For example, stealing, killing, lying, cheating are deemed as ‘bad conduct’ worldwide. Adrian Bishop, in a paper, ‘Moral principles defined: a decision-making perspective,’ shares, ‘One does not try and define what morality is, but one defines it by what it does.

Moral values are how one actually measures the difference between right and wrong, good and bad, positive and negative actions. This definition helps to distinguish between moral values and moral virtues. The latter, often quoted as moral values, are characteristics such as bravery, patience, altruism, generosity, prudence and so on, which affirm who the person is, whilst morality concerns itself with defining what the person should do.’

Warren Buffet, chairman and CEO of Berkshire Hathaway said it best, “In looking for people to hire, look for three qualities: integrity, intelligence, and energy. And if they don’t have the first one, the other two will kill you.” A person’s dishonesty will eventually catch up to them. It may not be today, and it may not be for many years, but you can rest assured that at some point there will always be a reckoning.’ (Forbes, 11/28/2012)

Coming back to the question; if integrity is about adhering to an ethical and moral code, how do many of us actually prescribe to it?

From the lowest level to the highest, corruption, lack of moral and ethical values seems to have replaced integrity. Of course, this is not true of everyone but in general terms seem to be true. Take a look around you. You will see innumerable examples in your daily lives. Going to grocery shopping – each shopkeeper selling vegetables will have a different rate for the same produce, often swinging wildly from Rs15/- a kilo to Rs45/-. Everyone tries to convince ‘Baji’ that the difference of price owes to a better quality of goods he alone is selling. How many times, those working have sent false excuses for not showing up for work? How many times, with unwanted guests turning up at our doorstep have been sent away with a false message sent through the servant that, ‘Sahib is not well and resting’ or the like – often in full hearing of giggling and amused offspring? How often do we grease the palms of people in different departments to get the work done; yes often for legitimate work too – because otherwise it will not be done? The list is endless and I can go on and on. But I guess you get the picture.

From the lowest level to the highest, corruption, lack of moral and ethical values seems to have replaced integrity. Of course, this is not true of everyone but in general terms seem to be true.

Does the ability to observe ethical and moral code and have integrity related in any way to observing laws? I think it does. Law is, by and large, a lot of common sense aimed to look after and preserve the rights of individuals within the society, supporting the ‘good conduct’ and opposing the ‘bad conduct.’ Organizations dealing their consumers and markets with integrity win their trust. Dan Akerson, chairman and chief executive officer of General Motors, in his ‘Leadership Message’ to the company’s employees in 2011 says, ‘Acting with integrity is something we must live every day at GM, and the current business environment makes it more important than ever. It means honest and accurate reporting of our performance. It means careful attention to our internal controls and policies. It means understanding and complying with our legal responsibilities. And, it means competing by the rules and making sure our actions match our words.’ In other words respecting the law in countries it is operating and respecting the law/policies to be followed within the organization.’

The constitution of Pakistan in Article 63 laying out disqualifications of a member of parliament states that a person shall be disqualified from being elected or chosen if ‘he has been convicted by a court of competent jurisdiction for propagating any opinion, or acting in any manner prejudicial to the ideology of Pakistan, or the sovereignty, integrity or security of Pakistan, or morality, or the maintenance of public order, or the integrity or independence of the judiciary of Pakistan, or which defames or brings into ridicule the judiciary or the armed forces of Pakistan, unless a period of five years has elapsed since his release.’ Yet another clause of Article 63 states the person may not be chosen if he has been, on conviction for any offence involving moral turpitude and sentenced for a period of two years unless five years have passed since ending of serving of the said sentence. Black’s Law Dictionary (1891-1991 Pg 1008) defines moral turpitude as, ‘The act of baseness, vileness, or the depravity in private and social duties which man owns to his fellow men, or to the society in general contrary to accepted and customary rule of right and duty between man and man.’

Things are not isolated. They are intertwined, overlapping and encircling one another. Laws are but an endorsement of supporting the good acts within the moral code of behaviour. The question then arises: Why do wrong acts go unpunished? Why are certain people perceived to be above the law while the same law deals harshly for the same crime with others?

This by no long shot means to imply a wrong becomes a right by virtue of this. What it does mean is, with a lack of respect for law, with a lack of respect for following a moral and ethical code of conduct and with a system in which each clog serves itself and its own, ignoring the ‘social duties which man owns to his fellow men, or to the society in general contrary to accepted and customary rule of right,’ the level of integrity has been allowed to slip and go unchecked.

It is here the role of strong leadership comes in play. A strong leader must support and implement laws, stand head and shoulders above corruption and be seen to be a man (or woman) of unimpeachable integrity. USIAD states on its SITE, ‘Fragile states are also characterized by weak policies, institutions, and governance.’ This will inevitably negatively impact different areas of lives of the common man creating anger and frustration. It will lead to more flaunting of laws at all levels.

A choice has to be made between good conduct and bad conduct.

Cross post from:

The Pakistan Coup d’Etat of 1958: Part I

Naveed Yajammal

A Pakpotpourri Exclusive

Naveed PicOne does not find much written on this aspect, but this much is evident that the Gang which took over from within the old Gang hierarchy-did so for personal survival instincts and not for any nationalistic motivation or such like  a noble cause.  Should one read the ‘British Papers’ declassified  & published by Oxford Press, covering unfortunately only the selective period as compiled by  Roedad Khan[[retired former  senior-civil servant]who for reasons best known to him chose selected demi-official letters; from this treasure trove of hidden knowledge. Even than one can get the drift of the gist of the manipulations which led to final exile of Iskandar Mirza & Nahid Mirza from the power corridors. Most of this information which will be highlighted in the parts of this article is that, which Sir Alexander Symons’s Karachi sent to the Whitehall, as one reads one finds that Alexander Symons had full confidence of both Iskander and Ayub, an art by itself or that of a seasoned diplomat, and perhaps it was because both were products of Sandhurst and trained or indoctrinated to a system created by the British. So one finds the Whitehall at ease with them. As one can glean if not from before but definitely from 1947 onward Iskander Mirza and Ayub Khan were soul mates.

Each one covered the other-both were master manipulators, The only third person who remains in background  & yet plays his role is  the chief justice Mohammad Munir. He gave legitimacy to the Byzantine intriguers reborn. Ghulam Mohammad as Governor-General outwardly a strong man remained the front man after the assassination of Liaqat Ali Khan. The puppet masters were both Iskander and Ayub. Both  are seen moving in the directions as given to them by their mentors, as without their tact approval they did not move-as will be explained subsequently in this article.

One fails to find any logical cogent grounds for the coup d’état of 1958, there were no imminent National crisis which had asked for such a drastic action. The later claim by Ayub khan’s junta that the coup d’état was a logical conclusion, as the country was on brink of disintegration is false and utter rubbish, and has no factual basis, other than a  rhetoric. Ayub and Iskander became a lethal team, and had not Iskander Mirza taken Ayub under his tutelage, Ayub would never have become what he became.

As is evident by these dispatches  referred above, if read closely, It was always Iskander a shrewd man and not a plaything in the hands of the Army. It was Ayub who had always sought cover behind Iskander Mirza. Do keep in mind that it was Iskander Mirza and Not Ayub who had abrogated the Constitution on the night 7/8 Oct 1958 earlier, in the phase one of the later 1958 coup d’état, which came 20 days hence on night 27/28 Oct 1958.It was Iskander Mirza who had nominated Ayub as the new designate Commander in Chief after the Death of Maj. Gen Iftikhar Ali and Brig Sher khan in the air crash.

This meteoric rise of an unknown Officer with no war laurels to support nor any worthwhile achievements, to show was indeed hand-picked, & in almost 5 years from a Major he arose to become a full General-[1945-1950].As per the Press Communiqué issued by the Defense Ministry under Iskander Mirza on 06 Sept.1950, which announced the selection of by the Governor-General. Kh. Nazimuddin of Maj. Gen Ayub Khan as the First Pakistani C in C to replace General Sir Douglas Gracie on his retirement.

The British held Iskander Mirza in high esteem till his end, as is evident by the courtesies extended to him by the British Government, these contrast very sharply with the Shabby treatment shown to Iskander Mirza by Ayub Khan who was in reality was, his created protégé.

But like it is said, ‘There are No permanent friends. Only permanent interests”.

And it is ironic that London and its Whitehall was every ready to do business as usual with Ayub Khan, after Iskander Mirza was exiled, later when the time came & the cycle took its full turn, after 25 March 1969,a tactful oral message was sent to Ayub Khan in the aftermath, by the British Govt, but it was business as usual with Yahya Khan. Here it maybe pertinent to remind the reader that Ayub by handing the power to Yahya khan had violated his own 1962 constitution, the power should have been transferred to Civil & not Military.

Soon after in Jan 1951 when Ayub Khan took over the Command of the Army, in a month, the Rawalpindi Conspiracy case was detected. Both Iskander and Ayub were tasked to interrogate the informer and so followed by a witch hunt, Army came under the yoke of both these two; Police under Qurban ali Khan the I G of Punjab was given a full mandate to cover the whole country and locate any one they found needed. The CID Punjab with Maj Gen Hayauddin as the chief liaison officer from the Army having his own axe to grind did the needful, to remove from the Army unwanted elements or subdue others. Yes men were encouraged later to rise and strong men retired. The precedence set by Ayub Khan created the great divide within the Army of the Uniformed Babus’ who rose to higher ranks and the Field Officers who fought wars, but were sent home later. In late 1952,Iskander Mirza led a military delegation to Turkey, Ayub was part of the entourage here as per pre-arranged plans both jointly met the American Under-Secretary for Defense. Finding Americans receptive Iskander Mirza sent Ayub khan to USA. This followed a return fact finding visit by a U.S. mission. Ayub Khan cunningly was developing his own personal relations with the Americans, as subsequent events speak by themselves.

In April 1954,general elections were held in East Pakistan, the Muslim League was totally routed and riots erupted all over the country. Admanjee Jute Mills at Naranganj under the bloodsucking new elite of industrialists with very  high level of cheap labor neglected and treated as slaves became the center of resistance,500 men alone in this jute mill died in the ensuing riots, Prime minister Mohammad Ali Bogra appointed Iskander Mirza as the new Governor of East Pakistan. Iskander Mirza it must be borne in mind was tethnically  a Bengali and spoke Bengal so he quickly got the situation under control, the centers of trouble were found to be University of Dacca, Colleges at Sylhet & Rajshahi.  Both the colleges were reformed & the Dacca University moved to a new campus 25 miles away from the main city of Dacca. In Aug 1954′ came heavy cyclonic rains and floods, 15000 square miles of coast land and riversides were flooded. Over 10 million people were left homeless. The Army & Air force moved in, as did American Agencies on the behest of Iskander Mirza move in and shortly the issues were handled-this gave huge impetus to the prestige of Iskander Mirza.

In West Pakistan the Governor General Ghulam Mohammad and the Prime Minister were on each other’s throats. On 21 Sept 1954, while Ghulam Mohammad was on the his usual northern tour a Legislative Coup took place in the Constituent Assembly which was aimed at rendering The Governor General powerless, by virtue of this new amendment the Governor General could only Act on the advice of the Prime Minister. Glulam Mohammad rushed back and started his own power politics in cahoots with Ayub Khan’s support.

Iskander Mirza’s son quotes this in his book,’From Plassey to Pakistan, ‘That earlier Ayub Khan had made his intentions known to John K.Emmerson the chargé d’affaires U.S Embassy Karachi, while the Ambassador Hildreth was away in USA for his daughter’ s wedding, and quotes a de-classified Top Secret Telegram no.474 dated Oct 06 1954.addressed to  the U.S Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, ”In conversation General Ayub today with General Sexton only other person present. Ayub Khan said he did not like present political situation …….Ayub said, If some action was necessary ‘hope you [the U.S] will understand…He reiterated ‘something would be done.”No mistake he meant Military would take over if necessary. Ayub asked that this conversation should not be mentioned to any Pakistani or Britisher.”[Reference to British deemed that in a Common wealth country the Head of State was appointed by the King/Queen of Britain and it was High Treason under the law of what he was thinking to do].

And it is fact that Ayub was under extreme threat himself as the Prime Minister Mohammad Ali Bogra had categorically-stated that No extension would be given to Ayub Khan in Jan 1955.

M.B Khalid was the Principle Assistant of Ghulam Mohammad since 23 Aug 1952 and remained in this slot for the next 16 years till 1968,having served Under Iskander Mirza and Ayub Khan as well, he published his autobiography in 1988,in Urdu, Khalid in his opening chapter gives the narration of the final day of departure from the Governor-General House  by Ghulam Mohammad, by 1955 even after manipulating the law and making Chief Justice uphold his decision of dissolving the Constituent Assembly. Iskander Mirza and Ayub khan felt that he must now leave, as he had served his end, so that day- the route from the Governor General  House till Clifton house of the daughter of Ghulam Mohammad was lined up on both sides by Army contingents and bands to bid him his final farewell. Iskander Mirza was seen hovering all over  & supervising all minor details as he was to take over-as the new Governor General, and as Ghulam Mohammad was made to sit in the limousine, Iskander told  A.B Khalid and an ADC to accompany the outgoing Governor General. While Iskander followed in the limousine. On reaching the House after getting salutes throughout the journey as he entered his daughter’s house; Ghulam Mohammad broke down and started weeping seeing the small room or his eventual fate. Dr.Khan Sahib and Ch. Mohammad Ali who had reached earlier stood at a respectable distance. However a faint victorious smile lingered over the face of Iskander Mirza who was constantly assuring him that all will be well and he would remain loyal to him, and cater for all his needs, and he need not worry, and that his decision of resigning was a good decision and in the ultimate National interests.

In the continuation to all this, he narrates how  this one time powerful man had called in Khawaja Nazimuddin  the Prime minister on an immediate  notice and dismissed him, as soon as he entered his office. As Khawaja left for his car Ghulam Mohammad had watched him go. Meanwhile all his escorts had been withdrawn in a pre-arranged move and the Flag of Pakistan also removed from his official car and only a driver remained to open his car door-and Khawaja Nizamuddin had been the Prime minister just-15 minutes back.

With passage of time and declassifications and new evidence emerging in shape of books, one finds that behind all these manipulations stood Iskander and Ayub till each met his own Fate.

A B Khalid further states that it was in early afternoon of 07 Oct 1958 that the personal servant [Abdul Sattar]of Iskander Mirza came with a urgent message for him and Nusrat- ud-din, as they both shared the same office that Sahibjee says that both of you be back in office by 5 pm as some urgent matters are in offing and need to be typed. Khalid adds that on reaching at 5 pm they both had tea and discussed normal issues and at around 6.30 pm walked in Major Gen. Sher Bhadaur with a brief case which he opened and started giving out drafts of the letters to be typed by both him and Nusrat[who was the Principle secretary of Iskander Mirza]and Gen. Sher Bhadaur sat on a chair not allowing any one to enter or receive any phone calls. To the extent that even carbon papers were supplied from his brief case. Meanwhile outside in the long corridor Iskander Mirza paced to and fro and chain-smoked and it was by 9.30 pm that typing ceased. The first paper was a proclamation’ in which the constitution stood abrogated National and Provincial Assemblies stood dissolved and the Cabinet dismissed. The second paper was the appointment of General Ayub Khan as the Chief Martial Law Administrator. The third paper dealt with personal messages to the vital Head of States. The Fourth was urgent Letters to Ambassadors of vital countries to visit on receipt of these letters immediately the President House [old Gov. Gen House].

After the typing had ceased and letters checked for any errors all three proceeded to the Military Secretary Office i.e Colonel Nawazish Ali. Shortly later walked in Iskander Mirza and checked the letters. Thereafter walked in Gen. Ayub khan accompanied by Gen. Burk and  Gen. Azam Khan all three saluted Iskander Mirza then Ayub khan said; ”Everything is okay’ Sir-Operation is complete”.

They all shook hands and congratulated each other over the flawless operation, on this note walked in five waiters each with Bottles of whiskey/soda and glasses. Iskander Mirza with a smile on his face after a few sips asked Gen. Ayub, ”Ayub, will I be alive tomorrow?”

Ayub Khan walked up to him and put his arm around his back and held him. The dinner was served at 11 pm and thereafter Gen Sher Bhadaur took Nusrat and Khalid away to their offices and shortly after this started a long queue of visitors, including the Ambassadors. Drinks flowed and cigar smoke hung heavy in the air while periodic heavy laughter rang in the hall ways till early morning hours.

[To be continued…]

An Inquiry in Cabballa or En Suf- Jewish Mysticism

This is a Pakpotpourri Exclusive

Naveed PicBy Naveed Tajammal

After the Fall & Destruction of the Jewish state-at the hands of Nebuchadnezzar [ 587BC]and their captivity-The Jew’s dispersed, however they did revolt thrice under the tyrannical rule of the Roman Emperors-all the revolts ,failed and ended with very heavy loss in utter disasters.  In the period between the captivity and till the first Jewish -Roman-revolt [66-73 AD]not many Learned men of this faith were left-The sole issue which raged in this period between the Jew’s was over the Oral Traditions, the number of these Traditions had increased to an extent that by the start of the First Century AD-the Jewish writers, had started referring them under distinct heads-With it came voluminous commentaries-The Confusion which arose from these numerous commentaries became the source of many schisms within Jewish faith-Rabbi Hillel [d-7 AD] spent a life time confirming the authority of each alleged Tradition- and it was Rabbi Jehuda [Born-135 AD] who spent 40 years making a new Digest of the Oral Law-so emerges the Misha or the First Talmud [200 AD].

The book ‘Misha’-covered or Comprehended all the laws, institutions & rules of life beside the ancient Hebrew scriptures. From the third century AD this book became a sacred book-however it too had defects and did not cover all ‘Ecclesiastical Laws [Synagogue [Jewish temple] & those covering the Jewish clergy] and need was felt on more commentaries-which were completed by Rabbi Jochanam ben Eliezer who wrote the ‘Gemara’ [350-400 AD] this book-or the Jerusalem Gemara-which differed from the later Babylonian Gamara-of Sixth Century AD-The Jewish Religious Schools ‘Yeshiva’ beside teaching the rites & rituals, also taught ecclesiastical precepts of Law-in these very Schools were also taught in the latter period a mystical traditional doctrine-called ‘Cabbala’-The Jews who followed these rites claimed that they had been passed down from Ezra[the scribe] /Musa/Ibrahim and Prophet Adam.

To give antiquity to their beliefs, under these ancient names books like ‘Sepher Happeliah’ ‘The Book of Wonders’ Sepher Hakkaneh,’The Book of Pen’ and Sepher Habbahir. ‘The book of light ‘were quoted-The book ‘s were attributed to Prophet Elias-having been told to Rabbi Elkanah. These books-opened to a true believer [cabbalist]many hidden doctrines- mystical commentaries on Divine Commands and more minute deeper sublime mysteries-

Two Individuals are alleged to have been conspicuous in explaining the Cabbalistic  philosophy-Rabbi Akibha [author of  the book,’Jezirah’] & Rabbi Simeon ben Jochai- [author of the book ”Sohar/Zohar’]-Rabbi Akibha had his  own Jewish religious school [Yeshiva] at Lydda or Diosopolis-The Jews of Palestine in those times said that ,’God had revealed to Akibha’,what he had concealed from Moses’’. So a sacred sanctity was given to him-it was in his times that a imposter arose-called ‘Bar Cochbas’ who claimed himself to be a ‘Messiah’ and promised the Jews that he would free them from the Roman Yoke-Rabbi Akibha espoused his cause-and Jews from all over flocked under the banner of Bar Cochbas’.After a few success the better organized Roman Army had the Jew’s on the run-finally they took refuge in the Fort of Bather-situated on a strategic valley ridge overlooking the Jerusalem-Bet Guerin Road-The Roman siege lasted  Three and Half Years-In the end all were taken prisoners and put to sword-However Rabbi Akibha and his son were flayed alive-

The alleged author of ‘Sohar or Zohar [Brightness] -Simeon ben jochai -was also a disciple of Rabbi Akibha however he fled before-to a cave and lived in it throughout these times-according to Jewish historians he received ‘revelations’ in the Cave and later Simeon, delivered the same verbatim to his Disciples-and so came the book-Zohar.

This book according to Cabbalist contains a summary of the Cabbalistic Philosophy-expressed in obscure hieroglyphics & allegories. What the best part is that-No Jewish writer has made any mention of this book prior to the 13th Century AD. This facet will be discussed later-however authenticity and date of compilation of ‘Zohar’ aside- but the doctrine & method explained in the book  bear a evident mark of antiquity that-too debatable as to how far back-but it is evident that it is in a way a revival of old Egyptian and Buddhist, rite and ritual based doctrine, which does ingress in the other two religions -Christianity and Islam in their later periods- One rationalistic reason why very little reference is found in the actual mainstream Jewish writings of this doctrine can be, that, as this was based on mysteries and sacred numbers- ‘Temurah’,like the  Islamic-‘Abjad’ . The Cabbalistic -Temurah comes in three different versions-[i] Atbash-replaces the first letter of Hebrew alphabet with the last and each letter has a numeric value-[ii] Argad-replaces each letter with the preceding letter-[iii] Albam-First letter is replaced by the 12th letter, and the second letter by the 13th and so on-  Other methods used like Temurah-are Gematria-and-Notarikun. The objective being to mystify and mislead the public at large.

Reverting back to the point discussed above as to why no reference is found in the Jewish texts earlier-on the subject of Cabala can be-that, as these mysteries and meanings differed from the doctrine of the Jewish religion preached from the ‘Pulpit’ and was confined to a selected entrusted few-who were initiated under a solemn oath of secrecy.

The result was only a few persons would venture to commit these things in writings because of the fear of being declared as heretics. And those few books written were concealed from public inspection, In any case they had been written in a cryptic code-only those who knew it could decipher it. The majority of Jews were always involved in their own internal wars over the Interpretation of Torah-or the Oral laws of  Prophet Moses-

It was only in the emergence of the Islamic rule that we see a revival of  the Jewish thought ,as the Muslim rulers became patrons of philosophy . In the 10th century AD, Jewish schools of teaching again started to flourish in Sora & Pumbeditha-[Iraq regions] Rabbi Saadias Gaon-a native of Egypt in 927 AD took over Sora-and wrote the book ‘The philosophers stone’-which is cabbalistic ,he also wrote-‘A compendium of Jewish Philosophy-likewise many other schools opened up under different Rabbi’s-Later they were found with passage of time polluting the Islamic thinking by providing various interpretations, in line with their own cabbalistic rite and rituals-so started their persecution -and they fled to Spain-where we find that by 12 century AD-Talmud being translated in Arabic-Cordoba in Andalusia next became their center. In crux two methods remained part of the teachings amongst the Jews-‘Exoteric, or that of Public and the other-‘Esoteric’ the hidden as in the cabbala- The exoteric was taught openly in all Jewish schools, and was part of all public debates-but, the esoteric which dealt with mysteries of divine nature [cabbala] was only taught or talked within a confined circle under strict rules in the manner of old Pythagorean or old Egyptian rites.

It were the ‘Maimonides’ [The followers of Moses ben Maimon [1131-1201 AD] of Cordoba Spain who reduced the articles of Jewish faith to 13 articles. Cabbala from the root word ‘ Cabbal’ means to receive-therefore is a term given to system of Theosophy [which means-those forms of philosophic & religious thought which claim special insight into divine nature and its constitute moments or processes-The histories of all great religions and philosophic movements show them as developments of an evolutionary process, arriving at their accepted dogma’s through long periods of contention between numerous tendencies & cross currents, resulting in some cases in a compromise, added with a little confusion-so is the story of theosophy as well-but, believer will believe in anything such is human faith-based on the human mind.

The Cardinal Doctrine of Cabbala embrace the nature of the Deity, the Divine emanations or Sephiroth; the cosmogony ,the creation of angles and man, their destiny and the import of the revealed law-According to this esoteric doctrine, God,who is boundless and above everything even above being and thinking, is called ‘En Suf’-He is the space of universe containing ,but, the universe is not his space-without getting in the doctrine of the Sephiroth-and its Ten-aspects. According to ‘Zohar’ the universe consists of four different worlds-each of which forms a separate Sephiric system of a decade of emanations.

In crux cabbala has been condemned and nowhere more strongly than among the Jews themselves-Jewish Orthodoxy found itself attacked by the more revolutionary aspects of mysticism and its tendencies to alter established customs-The Jewish clergy denied the possibility of anything unattainable by reason, the spirit of cabbala held that the Deity could be realized, and it sought to bridge the Gulf.

The most amazing aspect of all was that.  Among best-known non-Jewish exponents of the cabbala was ,the Italian Count- Pico di Mirandola [1463-1494]-who had placarded nine hundred theses of Cabballa. In Rome, and had stated to defend each one of them in presence of all famous European scholars, and had agreed to pay for their travelling expenses-his maxim was ‘No Science yields greater proof of the divinity of Christ than magic and the ‘cabbala. ‘Count Mirandola had so convinced Pope Sixtus of the paramount importance of the Cabbalas an auxiliary to Christianity that his holiness exerted himself to have the cabbalistic writings translated into Latin for use of Divinity students. With equal zeal, did Johann Reuchlin [1455-1522] exercise a magical influence on Pope Leo x, and the early reformers too were captured by the charms of cabbala. Thus cabbala linked the old scholasticism-with the new independent  inquires in learning and philosophy after the Renaissance-

Now we come to the critique on Cabballa;

1] The ‘Sipher Yesirah’,or ‘book of creation ascribed to prophet Ibrahim and to the Rabbi Aqiba its essential elements maybe of 3rd or 4th century AD but not beyond 9th century AD.

2] The ‘Bahir’ or Brilliant’ ascribed to Nehunyah[ 1st century AD]  is now confirmed to have been written  by the teacher of Nahmanides  i.e Ezra or Azreil [1160-1238 AD].

3] The ‘Zohar’, ‘or ‘Shinning’ is a commentary on Pentateuch- [five books of Prophet Musa-]and divided in 52-lessons.It begins with, the exposition, ‘let there be light’ and includes 11 dissertations [1] Additions and supplements [2] Mansion & Abodes, giving minute details of structures in paradise and hell.[3] The Mysteries of Pentateuch-[4] The Hidden interpretations-‘deducing esoteric doctrine from the narratives in the pentateuch.[5] The faithful Shepherd-this book is ascribed to Prophet Ilyas and Rabbi-Simon ben Yohai.[6] The Secret of secrets’-which is  a detailed-treatise on human Physiognomy and Psychology.[7] The Aged-A discussion between Prophet Ilyas and Simon on the doctrine of transmigration.[8] The book of secrets ‘discourse on cosmogony and demonology-[9] The Great Assembly-of the disciples.[10] The young man-discourses by young men of superhuman origin and on mysteries of ablutions [11] The small assembly-a discourse by Simon to Six surviving disciples.


The book Zohar-is portrayed by the Cabbalist to have been written by Simon ben Yohai in the aftermath of the revolt of Bar Cochbha and flaying alive of Rabbi Akibha by the Romans- 137 AD and that it was discovered in a Cavern in Galilee where it had been hidden for a thousand years-but reality is different-it seems to be a compilation of 13th Century AD-on the following Grounds ;

[a] The ‘Zohar’ itself praises most fulsomely Rabbi-Simon, its reputed author and exalts him above prophet Moses.

[b] The book mystically explains the Hebrew vowel points which, it did not have till the Jewish grammarians did so-in 570 AD.

[c] The compiler borrows two verses from celebrated hymn called ‘The Royal Diadem’, written by Ibn Gabirol who was born in 1021AD.

[d] It mentions the capture of Jerusalem by the crusaders and the re-taking of the holy city by the Muslims.

[e] It speaks of a comet which appeared at Rome on 15th July 1264.under Pontificate of Urban iv.

[f]  By a slip the Zohar’ assigns a reason why its contents were not revealed before-5060-5066 A.M i.e 1300-1306 AD.

[g] The doctrine of En Suf and Siphiroth was Not known before 13th century AD.

[h] The very existence of Zohar was unknown prior to 13th century.

[j] Hence it is has been discovered that it was a Moses de Leon[died-1305 AD] who had first circulated the idea of Zohar and sold the book after its publication-

Sources of this article for any further study are;

-The History of Philosophy by Johann J.Brucker translation by William Enfield, London 1791   Vol. I & Vol. II.

-The Encyclopedia Britannica 9th edition Vol. xii [1875-1889]

-Chambers Encyclopedia Vol ii.1895.

-The Encyclopedia Britannica 11th Edition Vol. xv.[1911]