You can read: ‘The Pakistan Coup detat of 1958: Part 1 on by clicking the link: https://pakpotpourri2.wordpress.com/2014/05/04/the-pakistan-coup-detat-of-1958-part-i/
You can read: ‘The Pakistan Coup detat of 1958: Part 11 on by clicking the link: https://pakpotpourri2.wordpress.com/2014/05/08/the-pakistan-coup-detat-of-1958-part-ii/
You can read: ‘The Pakistan Coup detat of 1958: Part IV on by clicking the link: https://pakpotpourri2.wordpress.com/2014/05/22/the-pakistan-coup-detat-of-1958-part-iii/
March 1954 elections in East Pakistan came as a eye-opener for the gang. Ghulam Mohammad the bureaucrat turned politician turned tables on the united front-which had defeated the Muslim league in East Pakistan because the united front was planning to bring in changes in the new constitution-thereby the powers of Governor-General would be restricted, and subject to approval by the Prime Minister- this was done on 21 September 1954-however on 24 Oct 1954-Ghulam Mohammad had dissolved the Assembly and the same day-Mohammad Ali Bogra appointed a new Cabinet Hussain Shaheed Shurawardy of the united front of East Pakistan joined in the new cabinet-as did Iskandar Mirza and the C in C- Pakistan Army Ayub Khan who had technically no right legally to be doing so-It was on this occasion that the P.A of the Governor General -M.B. Khalid writes in his book-”Awan e Sadr mein Sola sal’ published 1988-pg-83/84; ”Ghulam Mohammad had proposed to Ayub Khan- that he could become the interim Prime Minister -provided he, within 90 days make a new constitution-and so a referendum could be held.” This offer Ayub Khan had declined.
Soon after Ghulam Mohammad fell sick and was totally bed ridden -In Aug 1955-Iskandar Mirza became the Acting Governor General-after the constitution of 1956 came in vogue in March -Iskander Mirza was elected unanimously as the First President of Pakistan.
Meanwhile having engineered himself as the Governor General-Iskandar Mirza and his gang now played the musical chair of Prime Ministers-First to go was Mohammad Ali Bogra-Followed by Chaudary Mohammad Ali, next was Hussain Shaheed Suhawardy who had outlasted his utility-Ibrahim Chandigarh lasted barely two months and last one was Feroze Khan Noon was dismissed on night 07/08 October 1958.
Should one read the memoirs of Feroze Khan Noon-‘From Memory’- 1969.one finds that Feroze Khan as the Foreign Minister had the backing of Suhrawardy the Prime Minister and Iskandar Mirza, the president to follow a foreign policy which led to a conflict of interest with the Pro-American Ayub khan clique-As Feroze khan rightly states in his book ‘In Foreign policy it is the interests of of the country that are at stake, and not the party interests….I also felt that we must come nearer to U.S.S.R.[Russia].’ The other logic Feroze Khan Noon gives against too much reliance on American and Western Countries Aid since 1950’s and why the we should have had a tilt towards U.S.S.R was that, their focal point was to sell their old and new machinery and next came the technicians and erection and installation phases-who were mostly western or American and they took back a substantial portion of this AID in their salaries and other facilities which had to be created to lodge and board them. And the majority of these technicians who were sent here, according to Feroze khan noon, were those who were unable to make the grade in their own country-Here their personal comforts were given foremost priority the result was, that little Americas were created-with their refrigerators and air conditioners and imported homogenized foods -not to miss their American Cars-And so Feroze khan quotes the example of Russian Technicians in the same period in Afghanistan-who would wear the same clothes as the public wore and lived amongst them-and so the emotional dividends.
The American pressure on Ayub Khan & Air Marshal Asghar Khan to get things rolling was seen in the case of Badaber Air Base or the Peshawar Air Station- The civil Government was not suited to American Policies-It was after the removal of Feroze khan Noon that things really started rolling on this project-the end result was whose responsibility falls on Air Marshal Asghar Khan who was the commander in Chief Air force and by the grace of the American goodwill sat on this seat for 8 years July 1957-july 1965. He never once thought what the repercussions would be, or where lay our National policy-on the day Francis Gary power was shot down over U.S.S.R, and after the Soviets had established the origin of his flight-Nikita Khrushchev had called the Pakistani ambassador in Moscow and shown him the encircled in red on the wall map Peshawar City, and assured that Pakistan would suffer dire consequences if it continued such activities-
Should one read the book, ‘My Chief’ by Colonel Mohammad Ahmed-1960-who came in Ayub khans inner circle in 1948-after Ayub was made GOC East Pakistan, as his GSO-ll ,and after Ayub had been assigned his new appointment in 1950- Muhammad Ahmed was made the new Asst. Director Military Intelligence- and in 1955 became the P.S.to Ayub khan and continued on the same post with Musa Khan. As per his narration Ayub khan was in the good books of Americans from the beginning, by 1953 he was heavily involved with Pentagon-and not only that he had developed good relations with Americans in all walks of life-politicians, economists, journalist. military leaders, diplomats and business magnets-and was in high favor with Admiral Arthur W.Radford [1896-1973] who was the Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff from 1953-1957,and also with General Nathan Twining who remained Chief of staff of USA Air Force from 1953-1957 and was later Joint Chiefs of Staff-1957-1960-and do keep in mind that the Lockheed U2 Flights had started in 1955.[pages 66-76] Ayub khan keeping in view the changing world geo-politics on the American side, had timely started convincing the Americans that he was their Man-and so his personal meetings with Secretary of State J.F. Dulles, the foreign aid chief, Harlod E. Stassen-and the American undersecretary General Walter Bedell Smith. In fact the whole team of General D. Eisenhower the 34th American president from 1953-1961.
Gen Gul Hassan is correct,[ref Memoirs]-pg 132/133….’ It is true that the grant of extensions to Ayub Khan had released additional undercurrents and the Rawalpindi Conspiracy Case was never forgotten, especially by Ayub Khan. In the widespread commotion, the possibility of a coup by a general in collusion with some of our rapacious and disillusioned politicians, could not be ruled out. This made sense, particularly when all our generals considered themselves eminently qualified to occupy the C IN C’s chair. In the circumstances, Ayub khan decided that enough was enough. He therefore began removing the potential threat within the army to consolidate his own position…in this process Ayub khan supplemented generals who were at best mediocrities. The new promotes were obviously selected for their tractable characteristics & in this weeding out operation the accumulated experience was lost” ,and so lastly Gen Gul Hassan quotes-Henry James-”Experience is never limited, and it is never complete; it is an immense sensibility, a kind of huge spider-web of the finest silken threads suspended in the chamber of consciousness, and catching every air-borne particle in its tissue”.
According to Gen.Gul Hassan [pg127] ”Thanks to the U.S Military aid which began to flow into the country in 1954,we were able to replace some of the obsolete equipment but it was a painful and gradual turnover, Neither was the quantity as awesome as made out by our implacable neighbour, nor indeed the quality, For example, we received jeeps, which had aged in the Korean War and were supposed to have been reconditioned-The only reconditioning in some cases was a fresh coat of paint-The M 24 light tanks were well past their prime. When I attended a course at Fort Knox in early 1955,these tanks could only be located in the Museums. Likewise the Patton tanks [M 47’s],though of later vintage, they appeared far more menacing when arrayed in our tank parks than when taken out on exercises, where breakdowns were not infrequent, and finally the spare parts and practice ammunition were handed out in a niggardly fashion….”
It seems Ayub Khan had already decided to take over in 1958-as probably his mentors had told him so-which is evident if you read, what General M.Attiqur Rahman has to say on this [ref; Back to Pavilion’-1989/2005.pg-98-101] That in 1958-[keeping in view Ayub Khan was only given his third extension in June 1958,By Malik Feroze Khan Noon, and this time for just Two years]A future plan of action by the stake holders or a contingency plan for the Army to act upon, if a legal authority called upon it do so-was made-and Attiqur Rahman as the VCGS, Brig.S.G.M Peerzada DMO including Yahya Khan the CGS were involved in the making-Under the guide lines of General Ayub Khan-the plan was worked out on a ‘D’ Day basis-the key plan was a chronological order of actions that had to be taken-issue of instructions, movement of troops, organizations of HQ’s at Karachi, announcements that had to be made, speeches for the radio, security of key installations-A security plan had also been made for the movement of key personnel to Karachi and elsewhere under cover of normal conferences.
The- DMO [Brig.SGM Peerzada] according to the plan was to move to Karachi from the GHQ-and work under Yahya Khan, days prior to the D’ Day, while Attique and Gen Musa Chief of Staff were to stay back. Two copies of the whole plan had been prepared, with one in custody of Peerzada and other with Attique each page was marked with serial numbers ,and even on an open land- line. Peerzada was to read out the serial numbers and action on the relevant page was to be done-
Let me remind the readers of my Part-one of this article-”After the typing had ceased and letters checked for any errors all three proceeded to the Military Secretary Office i.e Colonel Nawazish Ali. Shortly later walked in Iskander Mirza and checked the letters. Thereafter walked in Gen. Ayub khan accompanied by Gen. Burk and Gen. Azam Khan all three saluted Iskander Mirza then Ayub khan said; ”Everything is okay’ Sir-Operation is complete”.
They all shook hands and congratulated each other over the flawless operation, on this note walked in five waiters each with Bottles of whiskey/soda and glasses. Iskander Mirza with a smile on his face after a few sips asked Gen. Ayub,”Ayub, will I be alive tomorrow?”
Ayub Khan walked up to him and put his arm around his back and held him.
So technically the whole operational side of both[night 7/8th Oct & night 27/28 Oct] 1958 coup’s was stage managed by Yahya Khan the CGS and resultantly we find him so close with Ayub Khan, in all subsequent matters.
[To be continued….]