You can read: ‘The Pakistan Coup detat of 1958: Part 1 on by clicking the link: https://pakpotpourri2.wordpress.com/2014/05/04/the-pakistan-coup-detat-of-1958-part-i/
You can read: ‘The Pakistan Coup detat of 1958: Part 11 on by clicking the link: https://pakpotpourri2.wordpress.com/2014/05/08/the-pakistan-coup-detat-of-1958-part-ii/
You can read: ‘The Pakistan Coup detat of 1958: Part III on by clicking the link: https://pakpotpourri2.wordpress.com/2014/05/22/the-pakistan-coup-detat-of-1958-part-iii/
You can read: ‘The Pakistan Coup detat of 1958: Part IV on by clicking the link:
You can read: ‘The Pakistan Coup detat of 1958: Part V on by clicking the link:
You can read: ‘The Pakistan Coup detat of 1958: Part Vi on by clicking the link:
By Naveed Tajammal
One can comprehend the rationale of Field Marshal Mohammad Ayub Khan in leasing out the Badaber CIA Spy Station for 10 years[1959-1969]-after all it was this concurrence to allow the Americans this Facility which made the Americans drop like a hot potato Major General Iskandar Mirza[As he was not willing to allow them this facility]-That factor aside, What no apologist of Ayub Khan can defend is the next the other major event which took place-after 28 Oct 1958-Which was the Signing of Indus Water Treaty 1960-The Americans after the Second world war were trying hard to emerge as the new global power i.e after the fall of the British Empire-and so were slowly getting involved in the geo-politics of the regions-The Kashmir Issue was a sore thumb since 1947-and a bitter war had been fought to reclaim it-Americans had put forward in 1951 David E. Lilienthal who was the head of TVA [Tennessee Valley Authority -which in its scope covered the water issues between various American states, within TVA] and in 1952 jumped in the World Bank-however by 1954 it was clear that neither Pakistan nor India were willing to budge or cave in-During the whole of 1955-Pakistan continued to press the point that, just the three upper Western rivers,’ ‘Without Storage Facilities’ would be unable to meet even replacement uses in the critical rabbi-maturing-khariff sowing seasons and the Khariff-maturing -rabi-sowing seasons, At Pakistan’s repeated requests, the World Bank finally agreed to ask TAMS [ this was the New York based firm of Tippets-Abbott-McCarthy-Stratton or TAMS which acted as consultants to the World Bank on all engineering and hydrological issues-and three members had been earmarked to handle the water issues related between Pakistan and India i.e Gerald T. McCarthy General James H. Stratton and John B. Drisko].
The TAMS team, led by John Drisko was asked to study and appraise the Bank about the seasonal adequacy of water supplies- The team did a thorough study and came to a conclusion that Pakistani engineers were indeed correct!
On 21 May 1956 the Bank issued an ‘Aide Memoire’ which in crux agreed that under the circumstances keeping in the Flow of the three upper rivers it was not sufficient to meet the seasonal needs of West Pakistan-unless storage was provided-Only after the this Aide Memoire was issued that the Civilian Government of Pakistan agreed in principle to study the proposal of division of the river waters between India and Pakistan-The Aide Memoire had proposed that India should bear the cost of storage facilities and the cost of enlarging the link canals, including the cost of an ”Upper Indus Link” through Potohar Plateau the total cost of these were in the money value of 1956-a whopping $ 2.3 Billion ! this canal was to link Indus at Attock gorge through a canal going diagonally connecting with Jhelum river and onward linking to lower canal works which relied on the lower three rivers-During the study it was estimated of the three different sites of Tarbela that the one at, Attock Gorge Dam was ideal as it could store up to 16 m.a.c of water-the flooding of lower regions of Peshawar or Mardan were negated by diverting the excess waters across the deep Potohar link canal-onward to River Jhelum and further into the Chinab and lower link canals.
The cost of all these developments India was supposed to pay-Pakistan’s stance on the concept was very clear-that the replacement uses alone were insufficient to compensate her for surrendering her rights to all the lower three rivers-Ravi-Beas and Sutlej-because Pakistan would thereby loss all the flood waters too-which were required as they yearly rejuvenated the riverbank regions with fresh silt and recharged the underground water reservoirs-and so the tubewells. Pakistan all along had asserted that some development rather than just replacement funding ought to be included in an equitable agreement, because the Object here was to restore Pakistan to her 1947 position, whereas after 1947 due to a large influx of refugees the population increased thereby leading to more load on her canal irrigated colonies-and Pakistan was yearly losing fertile lands due to mismanaged British Colonial irrigation system which had rendered ,At the time of our Independence in 1947,Thanks to canal colonies and related canal networks all over. We had 11 million acres under water logging, and 16 million were affected by Salinity [5 million acres severely salinized] -Colombo plan report’, extracts from ‘Landforms, soils and Land use of Indus plains-West Pakistan.Ottowa-1958.A Canadian venture hired to do the surveys,1951 onward.
Indians had refused to budge and give in the required sum-the stalemate continued till the Lord of the Duffers took over on 28 Oct 1958-
It was in November 1958-seeing removal of the Civilian Government that the Indians gave their new proposal to the World Bank which set the ball rolling in India’s favour, the Pakistani side was no longer fighting her rights but gradually retreating in the twilight, Ayub Khan was in chair he had to appease the Americans whatever it may cost to Pakistan all subsequent major decisions were between Ayub and Nehru-Ayub Khan fully knew that, Nehru had, hired the services of an outstanding German international Lawyer and an expert on river waters, a Professor F.J. Berber, and for years till the signing of the Indus Water Treaty, remained an employee of Govt. of India, though he did join the Munich University later, but remained a Consultant of GOI (govt. of India).
The works, of P.J. Berber translated in English i.e, Rivers in international Law’ to date remains an authority, the London Institute of World Affairs, had the book published.
The other reason why Nehru had the date of ratification of Indus treaty, back dated from September 1960 to 1st April, was because on 1st April 1948, they had shut down our waters, from the UBDC!!!
The callousness of Ayub Khan can never be forgiven for signing the Indus water Treaty 1960.whereas per Aide Mémoire earlier mentioned India was to pay in 1956 money terms value a sum of $ 2.3 Billion ,and the question of flood waters of three lower rivers was also a prerequisite-Ayub Khan under pressure from Americans and Nehru agreed to a mere $ 174 million Indian contribution ,that too spread over the next one decade In nutshell .Ayub Khan sold out Pakistan’s rights over the lower three rivers and plus gave Indian’s the right of building storage facilities on our share of upper three rivers, for just $ 174 million-what a great leader Ayub Khan was !
Ayub Khan always copied ideas-His brain and mentor was Maj. Gen Iskandar Mirza whom he had booted out-in his greed for absolute power-as we see that after 28 Oct 1958 Ayub followed the guidelines given by Iskandar Mirza-reference report sent by British High Commissioner Karachi -dt-29 September 1958 -DO-35/8943 [British Papers].
”President Iskandar Mirza has told the High Commissioner that he is contemplating a Coup d’état with Army support-whereby he would dismiss the present Government. postpone the elections due in early 1959 and govern the country himself with help of 20-30 good men-who would reshape a new constitution’-later in yet another interview dated-08 Oct 1958-Iskandar Mirza had indicated that the new constitution would take 3-5 years and even the new constitution would Not provide for Adult or female franchise and that he favored a unitary form of government for Pakistan”.
Ayub went ditto-after abrogating the constitution jointly with Iskandar Mirza on 08 Oct 1958-the new constitution came in 1962-he took his 4 years-and there was no such thing as a adult franchise in it- as per the Census of 1961-the total population of Pakistan was 93.8 million-East Pakistan had 50.9 million and West had 42.9 million, with a further gender breakdown of 49.3 million males and 44.5 million females.
So Ayub to ensure that he ruled for forever-with the Aide of Manzur Qadir his guarding legal angle-devised the devious plan of Basic Democracies, the idea which had germinated on 1st May 1959 was approved on 12-13 June 1959 at Nathigali Govt. House. Ayub Khan who was under a phobia of politicians by a stroke of pen eliminated their threat he imposed in 1959 EBDO [elective bodies disqualifications order 1959 – all 98′ top ranking politicians were debarred from participating in political activities for the next 6 years and the Order was enforced on 07 Aug 1959-and after this came the Basic Democracies Order which was enforced on 27 Oct 1959. By virtue of this Order, From the whole of Pakistan both wings 4000 units each were identified-so from these 8000 units 10 men each were selected by the local police stations mostly from the bundle A and bundle B cadre of criminals who were bound to the police stations by default –
The nomination or selection of these 80,000 BD members was completed in January 1960-Ayub khan in a hurry wanted to get a urgent vote of confidence from the newly elected BD’s who now formed the new electoral college-The ever wise Manzur Qadir came up with a answer-He insisted that voting will be confined within the units under supervision of the Police, all BD members will be put forth just one question-”Have You Confidence In The President Field Marshal Muhammad Ayub Khan, Hilal-e-Pakistan Hilal i Jurat. ”
This question was put before the BD members on 15 Feb 1960-and 75,283 0r 95.6 % replied in a ‘Yes’ and on 17 Feb 1960 Ayub Khan was sworn in as the First elected President of Pakistan-the same day he announced the appointment of a commission to form the new constitution under Justice Shahabuddin with 5 members from each province.
Sultan Muhammad Khan our former Secretary Foreign Affairs writes in his book, ‘Memories and Reflections ‘1997.”In the month of May 1960,President Ayub and his entourage were in London for commonwealth Prime Ministers meeting, ZAB was officiating as the acting Foreign Minister-During that time USSR made a dramatic announcement that they had shot down a U2 spy plane which had taken from a base [Badaber] in Pakistan…After consulting Brig. Riaz Hussain Shah the head of Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate [I.S.I.D] or the later I. S. I,and Air Marshal Asghar Khan Commander in Chief of the Pakistan Airforce, who both vehemently denied that any such flight had originated from Pakistan. Bhutto issued a statement exonerating Pakistan from any involvement-Apparently everybody was under the impression or were dead certain that Gary Power the pilot of U2 would have died when his plane was hit, he had also been provided with a poison capsule to avoid falling into the hands of the soviets-as luck would have it Gary power not only survived the shooting of his plane-he even ejected safely and landed on his feet-to live and tell the tale.
Sultan-states that the next day the Soviet Ambassador Dr. Kapitsa came to see him and he was confident that he would refute all charges the soviet Ambassador might make-however the Ambassador showed a written confession of Gary Powers stating that he had flown from Badaber [Peshawar Airbase] and the Soviet Ambassador pounded the table with his fists-as to what was Govt. of Pakistan up to, and should Khrushchev[Soviet Leader] wish he had the power ,that would in a single raid obliterate both Badaber and the Peshawar Airbase -now we revert to the flip side of Ayub Khan.
Christine Keeler was a English model girl-she moved within the higher circles of British Society and since 1961 she had been involved with the British Secretary of state for War-and others in June 1963 came, ”The Confessions of Christine Keeler’ which are very well elucidated in the British Papers-Oxford Press-pages 146-onward.
The Article contained references to Field Marshal Mohammad Ayub Khan, President of Pakistan
”………It had been a romantic day. Love was in the hot air. President Ayub Khan of
Pakistan was one of the guests at a party at Cliveden. I liked the President he was
more English than the English. Like Ivanov, he was a real man, husky, suave and
incredibly virile for his age. He was a wonderful swimmer, and perhaps I not say
this, but I tried to keep as close to him in the water as I could during fun and game ……….”
A lot of denials by the Foreign office of Pakistan were issued on this subject-and the next almost 20 pages of the declassified British Papers i.e Page 146 onward deal with this shameful episode-
[To be continued …..]