READ PART I : https://pakpotpourri2.wordpress.com/2015/05/17/act-of-india-1935-part-i/
With reference to Pakistan, being termed as a Federation, as per Government of India Act 1935 of British India, an Act, tailor made for the British as per their own geopolitical requirements in relation, to an empire where the sun never set, or the rule of the Union Jack. We as a nation, have to see our past and not the past which the British created and thrust upon us, in the form of various geographic entities, as seen now. A result of British Imperialist, Forward Policies, spanning the whole of 19th century, when the British had started their annexations in our Indus Basin in pursuance of,their own interest,to check the emerging threats of various pivotal powers of the 19th and early 20th century.
As the British finally left, the lid of the proverbial, Pandora’s box was also left open, but this particular Pandora’s box was filled with demons created by the British and their identities established, as per the job requirements, having rewritten our records, and having given us a spin of ,a, “lattoo”, they departed! Yet we labour, learning a script alien to us, a language alien to us, and for to write to express ourselves, we resort to a form of writing, not even remotely associated with us,a result of a little over a hundred years of despotic rule on us. Our indigenous educational system was destroyed, a generation gap created in the 19th century, as well as 20th century by introduction of this English Language. With it’s literature, based on alien cultures and histories tailor made for certain needs, now established, as dogmas.
In a hundred years, come three generations, add another 60 years, you end up with five generations. Then try taking on to yourself to seek the truth, wrapped in a bundle of lies, the unwrapping takes it’s own time, but, if the intentions are honorable and the manner sincere, you can even today hit the bull’s eye, and undo the damage which our old masters have done.
Of the former, two major British colonies in North America and Australia, both later became federations, we have to see the root of their creations and the races which decided to cross the stormy Atlantic Ocean fleeing prosecution of religious nature in their original abodes, and a feudal system despotic in all aspects of life, yet portrayed on us as the most harmless one. Taking USA as a case study of the original, thirteen colonies which formed the nucleus of a state, now called USA, the history is not very old, but of a recent past ,it’s independence almost coinciding with the, influx of Sikh inroads in our central regions, of the Indus Basin.. If we dwell in the past records we see that,. it was Newfoundland ,the most ancient of Britain’s colonial posses ion discovered by John Cabot in 1497. By 1504 fishermen of Normandy, Britannia and Basque provinces were engaged here, by 1517, forty sail ships of Portuguese, french and Spaniards were involved in the business of cod fishery . By 1578, four hundred vessels were engaged in fish business. But the British, had only fifty out of the total quoted. Sir Humphrey Gilbert with letters from Queen Elizabeth, landed at St John’s in 1583 and took possession of the country in the Queen’s name. But soon after, Gilbert, was drowned and the whole maneuver failed. The other nations mentioned however maintained their businesses in these lands.
In 1606, James I, of England formed two companies by a single charter. To one, the London Company he granted, the North American East Coast between 34 degree and 38 degree north, and to the other, the Plymouth Company, whose membership was in West of England, he granted the coast between 41 degree and 45 degree North latitude. The intervening coast between the latitudes 38 degree and 41 degree North or between Rappahannock and Hudson River, was to be common to both. The later colonists, had asked the Crown to declare that, their successor will be free persons and shall enjoy all liberties, franchises and immunities of free denizens, as enjoyed by all Born within the realm of England. The reason for this request was as quite a lot of these settlers were convicts being sent as penal settlers.
The London Company, first sent the shipload under Christopher Newport and it landed near a River on 13th May 1607, in the present State of Virginia, a town was built called, James Town named after the King. Soon other waves of colonists came persecuted by the English Church, others came to Plymouth(Massachusetts) in 1620. In 1632, came up the Colony of Maryland, the land given to Lord Baltimore. In 1663, the South of present State of Virginia was cut off and called, Carolina, later they became the States of North & South Carolina in 1729. And that of Georgia in 1732. Hence five distinct colonies became states out of the London Company’s grant ,the sixth was the Massachusetts by the Plymouth Company. Besides these, Connecticut was next(1662) and Rhode Island came after. The New Hampshire and the next to follow. The other four colonies and later states were between the London and Plymouth Companies.
Meanwhile, the Spaniards had taken over the South of North America and the French moved to it’s North. The reason being the religious differences with the Spaniards. Besides these nations, the Dutch also came in 1609, they had sent Henry Hudson an Englishman, to explore the central region of grant of James First. The Dutch had set up a trading post at,”Manhadoes”(the present city of New York)and a government under the Dutch West India Company was organized, here in 1621, named New Nether land and the town at the mouth of Hudson River,”New Amsterdam”. The next nation was Sweden, who established a colony at Delaware Bay in 1638 but the Dutch took it over in 1655.
By the time of reformation in religious matters in England, the northern and southern English colonies had started looking at these in between colonies as an annoyance and danger. England and Holland went to war in 1664, the English won and took over New Amsterdam and the whole of the Dutch central region.The king of England, awarded this, to his brother, the Duke of York. So New Amsterdam became the State of New York. The Duke of York sold out a part of these lands to Berkley and Cartwright and thus, New Jersey was the result. In 1681, the Great Parallelogram, west of New Jersey was granted to a , Mr William Penn and this became Pennsylvania.Soon after, Mr Penn bought some more land from the Duke of York which became the State of Delaware. The Quakers, a sect of Christians, found refuge here. Soon after, every language of Europe could be found in the subsequent USA. The French, had moved to Mississippi by 1702, under D’iberville, New Orleans was thus founded as was the city of Mobile. The land between Mississippi and Saint Lawrence was then called New France, however by 1750, the British numbered a million and a quarter as opposed to the French who were only a hundred thousand in America then.
The struggle from England was started by these states, being rooted in, the Stamp Act of 1765 and the revenue which was to be raised for the Crown from it. Then came the Tea Tax of 1770, the Boston Port Act of 1774 and the Quebec Act of 1774, which effected the lands North of Ohio and east of Mississippi.
The nail in the cofin for the British was, the Quebec Act, the American puritans , resisted the establishment of the Church of England, a Roman Catholic System in their lands. So started the Independence Movement between 1775 -1788.
In 1776, surprisingly, the first flag of thirteen states, the stripes which represented the states had, also, however the crosses of St George and Saint Andrew on the blue ground in the corner which acknowledged the royal power. It was later in war,that, in 1777,the crosses were replaced by the stars.
(to be continued next week)