Read Part I: https://pakpotpourri2.wordpress.com/2015/05/17/act-of-india-1935-part-i/
Read Part II: https://pakpotpourri2.wordpress.com/2015/05/17/act-of-1935-part-ii/
Before, the War of American Independence,had started in the true sense,and the flag underwent changes as per the requirements of the people of earlier USA,which we have seen very briefly,IE the entities which were part of this Federation,then called as a Confederacy,and NOT a Federation.A legal difference,between the two which will be explained later,in a subsequent related article.
The composition of these thirteen colonies,(later states),was that,all were called and termed provinces by the Crown,the Governors were appointed by the Crown and had an absolute veto on legislation.Hence there were thus, three proprietary,seven royal,one semi-royal and two charter colonies total ling the figure of thirteen. However,of the two charter companies,there were simple Representative democracies,having the power to legislate without a practical appeal to the Crown,and had no royal Governor or Agent within their borders.
It was their systems,which were the high water mark to which the desires and claims of other colonies gradually approached.Massachusetts,and the proprietary colonies were very nearly on a level with them,and the royal or proprietary governors veto power was rather an annoyance than a fundamental difference.
In all the colonies,representative governments had forced, their way and had fairly early taken a bicameral shapes IE the division of a legislative body into two chambers(a Senate and a House). In the Charter colonies,and Massachusetts,the Lower House was chosen by the towns,and the Upper House from the people at large,and the two Houses made up the Assembly.
In Pennsylvania,and Delaware,there were but only one House. In the Royal Colonies and in Maryland,the Lower House alone was elected by the people.The Upper House,or Council was chosen by the Crown,through the Governor. And the ascent of all three elements was essential for legislation.In the final revolution,the Charter Colonies did not change their governments at all,they already had what they wanted.The Revolution was consummated in the other colonies by the assumption of power by the Lower or popular houses usually known as,”Assembly”.The Governor or Counsel,or both,being ousted.A marked and important distinction is in the local organizations of the northern and southern colonies, all the southern colonies(later states),had begun as proprietary governments, settlers went there as individuals connected ONLY with the colony,to the individual the Colony, was the greatest political factory,his true new identity. His other connection was,his local church,related to the sect of Christianity which he followed, and they being numerous as will be elucidated.
The religion,thus played a dominant role in these colonies in those days,which eventually shaped them in later entities called states.Ethnicity too,was another factor in the making of these early states of USA.
The Dutch meanwhile,had created,in the central regions of both charter companies IE London and Plymouth Companies,a system of,”Patroon ships”,to understand the concept of this Dutch System one has to travel back in the Roman Times but briefly here,it was THE old patron and client relationship.The patron was technically here in USA in these states the First of the Equals,amongst the Dutch Colonists.The client was the New Colonists. It was the duty of the patron to provide his client with the necessities of life and it was the common practice to make him a grant of a small plot of land to cultivate on his own account,further,he(patron),advised him in all his affairs He also represented,in any transactions with the third parties,in which the New Colonists took part.The New Colonist,had to render to his patron,the respect and obedience due by a dependent,but,also when he was in a position to do so and the circumstances of the patron required it,to render him ,monetary assistance also.As the time advanced,the New Colonists amassed wealth,so now they,contributed towards the dowries of a patron’s daughter and also paid fines imposed on the patron by a competent authority,and also towards his(patron’s)maintenance when he had become reduced to poverty.The patron and the colonist were alike hereditary relationships.The traces of this system still exists as can be seen in the actual inner workings of certain classes in USA,the Mafia being the factor discussed. Such were the laws of the patroon ship fraternity prevalent in the central states in the Dutch regions of early USA.
In the religious matters, the colonies and later states were divided being protestants,Mormons,Quakers,Baptists,Methodists,Presbyterian,Episcopals and roman catholics.The Baptists were further divided into northern and southern churches.
The immigration factor which created these later states were the heterogeneous flow from Europe.The educational aspect was also fairly well covered,Harvard College in Massachusetts was founded in 1636,William and Mary College,in Virginia in 1692,Yale College in Connecticut in 1700,Princeton College in New Jersey in 1746,Pennsylvania University in 1749 and King’s now Columbia College,in New york in 1754.
Amongst the causes of revolt against the English Crown,were the other restrictive laws also,imposed on the colonies,in 1699,on the complaint of English manufacturers,that the colonists were cutting them out of their foreign wool markets,the British Parliament enacted that no wool or woolen manufactures could be shipped from any of the colonies under the penalty of forfeiture of ship and cargo. The English manufacturers ruled supreme in Britain and at intervals,”The Board of Trade and Plantations” especially tailor made by the British traders having been created in 1696,saw to it. The Board, from time to time heard the complaints of English manufacturers and traders and framed remedial bills for the British Parliament,the home of democracy,the West minister type of Democracy which we so often quote,and this august assembly,saw to it,that,the bills were passed!The so often quoted,man, MR Pitt ,the famous Prime Minister of England saw to it,as late as 1766, as from 1718 onward in the colonies the manufacture of iron goods ,was alarming to the businessmen of British Islands. So Mr Pitt, asserted the right and duty of Parliament to,”bind the trade and confine the manufactures” of the colonies,and to do all but tax them without representation.
Earlier too, in 1719, the British Parliament passed it’s first prohibition of iron manufactures in the colonies, and in 1750,it also forbade under penalties the maintaining of iron mills,stilling or rolling mills,plate-forges and Stella furnaces in the colonies.Where it suited the British provisos, were made .To quote an example,as it suited the traders and manufacturers of Britain,it allowed the import of American bar-iron into England as it was cheaper and better than the Swedish.
Silly acts and parliamentary laws were passed by British Parliament,to quote only one,in 1731,the Parliament had forbidden the manufacture or exportation of,”HATS”,in or from the colonies,even their transportation from one colony to the other.
The purpose of highlighting all these aspects of early American History,though as yet not fully covered is to enlighten the reader,that the British always drafted laws with ulterior motives.We have to question and check the veracity of these laws and study the past Acts of the British in their various colonies. The Act of 1935 is no exception as will be explained in my subsequent article.
(to be continued)