A case for Total Reorientation And Restructuring of the Pakistan Army

This is a Pakpotpourri Exclusive

Flag of the Pakistani ArmyBy: Yasub Ali Dogar Brigadier(Rtd.)

Pakistan Army has been the main savior of the state right from its birth looking after the multitude of refugees and defending it in wars against India. As late as 2009 checking the Taliban onslaught in Swat-Malakand and other parts of NWFP and stopping the juggernaut on its way to Islamabad just in time before it could become an uncontrollable menace. Similarly during the floods, earthquakes and other calamities/disasters it always rose to the occasion to earn the confidence and gratitude of the nation. At the same time it has been viewed as a tool of oppression during the military led governments. It owes it to the nation which is so dependent and fanciful of the Army to carry out self-analysis to further improve its cutting edge and remove the rust accumulated during last 64 years.

I got commission in 1965 soon after the 1965 war, at that time the brigade, division and the corps commanders had no responsibility other than the operational one or to look after the welfare of troops under command. The then Corps Commander, Lt Gen M M Attiqur Rahman had known 2/Lt Yasub Ali personally and knew what books he was reading as he had questions regarding that book on his subsequent visit. Similarly as late as 1978 the GOC Maj Gen Shamas ur Rahman Kallue knew every officer of his division personally.

This personal knowledge is needed for the simple reason that the troops have to be led from the front and it is only possible when you have deep intimate knowledge about everyone in your command. “The safety, honour and welfare of your country comes first, always and every time. The honour, welfare and comfort of the men you command come next. Your own ease, comfort and safety comes last, always and every time.” This is known as the “Chetwood Motto” and is the motto of all officers passing out from the PMA. Somewhere in our  Military History, we seem to have forgotten the above motto which every cadet aspiring to become an officer had to learn by heart.

During this period of over 45 years I have seen a gradual degradation of the operational preparedness, efficiency, integrity and welfare of the subordinates particularly of the soldiers. It would have further degenerated had this trend not been arrested by Gen Ashfaq Parvez Kayani. The credit goes to him to once again prioritize the wellbeing and welfare of soldiers. However the recent events have clouded that good work.

The degradation of the military’s professionalism started off during the era of Gen Yahya Khan, was grossly accentuated during Gen Zia ul Haq’s period of 11 years and reached its’ climax in Gen Musharraf’s decade long rule. Since then over a period of time the Pakistan Army has become unwieldy, over staffed by general officers and has been moving away from its core responsibility of defending the Nation. Now a day’s a corps or a division commander would be involved in some or all of the following activities at the time and cost of operational preparedness of his command.

a.       DHA at all major military garrisons.

b.       Logistics Areas i.e. which control the static installations which were under GHQ before 1977 were placed under command corps during Gen Zia’s period.

c.       Garrison schools in the cantonments and admission for Army Public Schools/Garrison Academy’s.

d.       Looking after the Station/Services/Garrison clubs

e.       Golf courses /polo grounds which are mostly played by officers.

f.        Managing shopping centres like the Fortress Stadium, petrol pumps and a host of other commercial activities.

 

In short the corps/division commanders are doing most of the above tasks at the cost of their own primary responsibilities of keeping their commands operationally sound. This unfortunate trend to get involved in non-operational matters finally led to failures like the Abbottabad incident.

An effort has been made to single out major problem areas and recommendations have been made to rectify them.

Problem Area and Recommendations

1.          Operational Commands:  The corps, divisions or brigades should not have any administrative or station responsibilities. They should just concentrate on their operational roles. All other aspects may be looked after by other Organizations/HQs within the Pak Army.

2.          The Logistic Areas: They should fall under the GHQ with control over CMH’s, supply depots, ordinance depots. workshops and all other static installations. Similarly all APS/Garrison schools be placed under the HQ Logistics Area and monitoring responsibility be that of GSO 1 (Education) at the HQ Logistics Area.

3.       Corruption:  There have been reports of corruption at higher level without any accountability e.g. the NLC scandal. It is clear that a corrupt leadership cannot lead troops in the field to give the supreme sacrifice of their lives. Deterrent action needs to be taken to forestall such tendencies.

4.       Austerity and Simplicity.   Simple and austere living should be the hall mark of Defence Services, they should be an example for the entire nation. Palatial messes, ornately decorated offices and excessive expenditures on entertainment from official funds are not keeping with Islamic or for that matter military traditions. Similarly move sanctions to attend marriages and private functions should be ruthlessly cut down.

5.       Restructuring of the Army:  Over a period of time the Pakistan Army has become too big for peace time and too small for a war with our main adversary. We need to find our solution in a military system like that of Switzerland, Sweden or Israel. The size of the Army can be safely reduced by 25% by adopting a hybrid system of mobilization suited for our requirements.

6.       Organizational Restructuring:

a.       In certain sectors the Division HQs may be reduced to the level of a Tactical Headquarters and huge paraphernalia of administrative services saved or merged in Logistics/Sub Areas. It is understood that France, Italy and even Turkey have removed one of the echelons i.e. either Brigade or Division HQ. I suggest merging the Corps HQs and Division HQs.

b.       The concept of a pentangular organizational structure may be examined for adoption in the Army instead of the present triangular one. This entails having five brigade groups of five battalions each. Lahore/Sialkot Corps areas can be looked after by one such Combat HQ each. The strength ratios for other sectors can be worked out separately. There is no requirement for a division HQ in such a setup. The pentangular organizational structure is already in place to an extent in 10 Corps.

c.       Teeth to Tail Ration:  Maximum manpower of Army, Navy and PAF should be converted into teeth. Israeli Army IDF’ ratio may be taken as an example. It is felt that we have a very heavy tail employing a large number of officers and men in HQs and on administrative tasks at the cost denuding these resources from operational tasks.

d.       Special Forces:  It is the future of warfare, properly employed they yield results out of proportion to their numbers. At least one commando battalion can be created in every infantry division without

e.       Unnecessary Organizations: Artillery Divisions, Heavy and Light Anti-Tank Battalions are redundant organizations wasting high quality manpower in HQs etc. in a modern battlefield. The Infantry should have only two components i.e. the Light Infantry or the Mechanized Infantry. The remaining nomenclatures are just semantics. I visualize the anti-tank assets presently held with the LAT battalions be handed over to other infantry battalions of the formation thus augmenting their anti-tank resources. These units should be converted to light commando battalions on the pattern of US Rangers battalion in every division. Similarly the HAT elements if required to operate independently may be reorganized into independent companies to be attached with independent brigade groups.

 

f.        Services.  The large Army in waiting for a war in EME, S & T, and Medical units may be reduced. As an Independent Brigade Commander, I had almost 200 strong Infantry Workshop Company (EME) doing the job what 10-15 persons would be doing in the private sector. Similarly huge establishment of RV & FC needs new challenges in not becoming an unnecessary burden in this modern era. Most of their present tasks can be better performed by the private sector. Similarly, you may consider doing away with the ‘Ghori Paal Murabba’ and other such schemes, which are of no operational consequence and instrument of oppression for the allotted.

7.       Balochistan:  Quetta has the largest number of general officers in Pakistan after Rawalpindi. A senior officer is also a catalyst for development in his area as because of his seniority he can pull lots of developmental efforts in his direction. By sending the two GOCs to Loralai and Khuzdar and creating a ‘Mekran Military District’ at Turbat, the Balochistan problems will be addressed in a meaningful manner besides achieving much better interaction with local population.

 

8.       Manpower Issues:

a.       GHQ:  It should be right sized, unnecessary officers and staff should be cut down to be employed the field areas. Over a period of time it has become a dumping place for officers wanting to settle down in Rawalpindi/Islamabad area. A lean and thin organization will always produce better results that a overstaffed one and at the same time not suffer from confusion created by too many officials.

b.       The ISI:  It also needs to be reduced to a size where quality and efficiency should be criteria for stay. It should not become a repository of officers waiting to serve in Islamabad & Rawalpindi.

c.       Down Grading of Appointments:  A large number of appointments were upgraded in last 10 years to appease senior officers. They should be brought down to a natural level.

9.       Civil Armed Forces.

a.       Deployment of CAF for IS duties:  The CAF’s were taken out of their primary role of border surveillance and put on IS duties in Sindh. Additional troops were raised subsequently as the requirement kept on growing. Later their role in this field was extended in Punjab also. A large number of Army officers commanding troops in such roles have to do ‘public dealing’ like the police or magistracy for which they are neither trained nor required to do so. The recent cases in Karachi and Quetta are indicative of our own ill-preparedness for such roles. It is felt that with raising of additional ‘Elite Police Force’ the CAF’s can go back to their traditional role of guarding the Nation’s frontiers.

b.       HQ CAF’s:  There is no coordinating HQ for the CAF’s in Pakistan unlike the BSF in India.  To have a uniform policy, guidelines and interaction with Ministry of Interior and GHQ the HQ CAF may be raised. It was under raising in 1977 with Major General Amir Hamza as the 1st Commander when the Martial Law was proclaimed by General Zia-ul-Haq. Both this HQ and FSF were disbanded.

c.       Officers Deputation to CAFs:  There should be 2 streams, 1st after 5 years of service in the Army followed by permanent absorption in CAF Cadre 2nd after approximately 17 years of service in Army for officers who do not make the grade in the Army but still have potential for a 2nd line service.

d.       PAF/Navy Officers Induction to CAF:  Regular officers of the other Services may also be given an option to serve in the CAFs. These Officers particularly with SSG training can act as value aided asset.

e.       Deputation in ANF: The arrest of 2 Majors in Lahore for the murder of an under trial person is a clear indication of the Army’s unpreparedness for such roles. As I was the persons who raised the ANF Punjab, I am fully aware of the pitfalls these officers were exposed to and at one time even recommended either their permanent absorption in the ANF cadre or its handing over to the Police officers who are trained for such jobs. It may also be borne in mind that a large number of Army officers in ANF are exposed to dealing with foreigners (Drug Liaison Officers) on daily basis which needs to be avoided at all costs.

10.   Federal Security Force (FSF):   It was raised by the late Prime Minister of Pakistan Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto in early seventies but was disbanded by the Martial Law regime of General Zia-ul-Haq in 1977 being considered as forces countering the Army. Such a force maybe re-raised to take the burden of internal security from the Army and the CAF’s.

11.   Training Institutions:

a.       Joint Services Staff College:   All Services Staff Colleges may be combined at Quetta. There is no justification for separate staff colleges particularly the Naval war College at Lahore.

b.       Concentration of Training Institutions:  Almost all Training Institutions are within 100 miles of Rawalpindi. Even the Baloch Regimental and EME Centres which were in Quetta were brought near Rawalpindi being nearer to an area from where most of the Officers Corps hailed. Some of the Training Institutions from heavily saturated Cantonments i.e. Abbottabad and Nowshera etc. should be moved to interior Sindh and Balochistan. This will ensure better interaction and economic growth for local population.

c.       Training Centres:   Finish off the recruit training at the Training Centers. This measure alone will liberate 6x Infantry Brigades, 1x Armour/Artillery/Engineer Brigades which is almost a Corps size strength locked in them. The ‘Record’ functions could go to the respective Directorates. The recruit training could be at the formation battle schools and the advance one at respective schools of instructions. Advanced countries like Germany and France cannot afford the luxury of the Training Centers.

12.   Nation Building Role:  Army should take pride in having a permanent role in nation building activities in inaccessible areas of Baluchistan, NWFP, Sindh, AK and Gilgit-Baltistan areas by earmarking at least one third of its elements like Engineers, Signals and EME etc. for this purpose. Besides FWO and NLC, even active formations’ elements may participate in such ventures. It is time it undertakes projects like the Gwadar Railway Link and Quetta-Zhob- DI Khan Railway Link Projects.

13.   Cantonments Structure:  We have allowed our Cantonments to become a mixture of civilian areas, semi military, military and unit areas. There is no security as civilian population and military personnel are living next to each other. This trend should finish, military garrisons should be military garrisons and nothing else.

14.   Rationalization of Accommodation Army/Navy/PAF:  In some of the cantonments particularly Karachi, the accommodation between the 3 Services is being shared in a most haphazard manner. There is a requirement to have clear Army, Navy or PAF areas. One suggestion is to move the Navy towardsKorangi and Saddar, the PAF may take over along Drig Road including Karsaz and Army could be east of Karsaz towards Malir.

15.   NLC:  It should be only in transportation of goods, all other aspects may be closed down. There is no need to duplicate functions of FWO e.g. road construction or infrastructure development. Only retired officers should be employed.

16.   Fuji Foundation:  A Board of Management composed of ex Chairmen JCSC with 3 ex Chiefs of Services should manage its affairs. Besides the services being provided in the medical, education, vocational training, it should gradually move away to manufacture of vehicles, arms, munitions & equipment required by the Armed Forces. The ‘Turkish Askari Foundation Model may be followed.

17.   AWT/Bahria/Shaheen Foundations:  3 x ex Chiefs of respective services should govern their affairs with of Board of 3 to 4 senior most retired officers to assist them. They may be asked to move into manufacture of goods & items required by the respective service as the first priority.

18.        DHAs:  They should be placed under a senior PSO, e.g. Dy COAS. No serving officer should serve in them. The rules and regulations for any wrong doing by any one should be made very stringent so that these Institutions cannot be allowed to be used for any personal gains.

19.        Militarization of Civilian Posts:   Militarization of civilian posts i.e. DML&C (Director Military Lands & Cantts) and CMES (Commander Military Engineering Services) should stop as it has not improved anything. Instead cadre based officials should be selected on merit to give their best to the Defence Services.

20.   Army Housing Schemes:  Welfare projects like Army Housing Schemes may go to the Army Welfare Trust or Fauji Foundation, which could also act as a source of employment to the retired army personnel. The rank based housing/plot schemes should be finished. It has created more heart burning and polarization within the ranks of the Pak Army than be a source of welfare.

21.   Human Resource Quality

a.       MS Branch needs to open up and ensure more transparancy. Its working has created a lot of disgruntlement in our officers’ lot. It should adjust its attitude towards officers so that they are able to give their best till the last day of their service.

b.       A survey may be taken of all Cols and above about how much time they have spent in and around 100 miles of Islamabad/Rawalpindi. They should all be posted out to the field commands.

c.       At the lower ranks the usefulness of JCOs in Command appointments maybe re-examined. Whereas they could stay in administrative appointments, more NCOs could be directly commissioned to command platoon/troops at comparatively younger age (30 to 35 years maximum). This will have a blend of efficiency while keeping avenues open for promotion in the lower ranks.

22.   Miscellaneous:

    1. Officers Messes:  The concept of officers’ mess maybe re-examined. We are trying to live a post-colonial life, which was by no means ours. The mess staff on the TO&E of units may be converted into more useful categories. All differences between the feeding of men and officers should finish particularly in the field.
    2. Ceremonial Guards:  Should finish off except at the residence of the senior most General officer in a Military Garrison. There should be a ceiling on the total number of persons working in a Flag Staff House.
    3. Allotment of Plots/Agricultural Land:  It should be done only after the retirement notice has been served or maximum 6 months before retirement. Only 1 plot per officer, remaining all through open ballot including commercial plots.
    4. Border Lands Committee:   It had lost its purpose decades back, with 95 % of the border belt in private ownership it is just a tool of oppression for the hapless citizens who fell afoul of the prevailing system.

Conclusion.

23.  No one can deny that Reforms for Reorientation and Restructuring of Pak Army are required urgently in wake of the Abbottabad incident in particular. Any delay will further make it more difficult to carry on and the Pak Army will start losing its cutting edge along with moral standing in the Pakistani public which look towards it in their difficult moments of national survival.


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Comments

  • Faisal Imam  On August 10, 2011 at 12:02 pm

    I think He has hit the nail on the head.we need a lean,mean and effective army.with advancement of electronics and management systems and defining basic role we can reduce numbers fairly.i would love army as an institution.
    Yahya sacrificed quality for quantity.Lowered the standards of recruitment,training,upkeep etc.the others followed without thinking.
    a book i read on the subject by Alvin Toffler ‘war and anti war’ was on the same theme.kindly read it.

  • S. Cadri  On August 10, 2011 at 1:30 pm

    Hello everybody,
    Move cantonments out of town!
    If they are serious they have to recognize that times have changed, the world has moved on. Cities have grown. If hey are serious the first thing is for them to move all cantonments out of town.
    More link roads made through those areas to help people and their lands should convert to parks and forests like it happens in US and Europe. It is great. Helps improvement of health of citizens with more quality air.
    More importantly it will also ensure that PNS Mehran incident is not repeated.
    Is any body listening please!
    SB

  • Yasub Dogar  On August 10, 2011 at 1:32 pm

    I fully agree with you, we should channel our saving in manpower into electronics warfare 7 things like C4I etc. Just see the difference on one side President Obama was physically watching the Abbottabad raid & on the other side we are totally blinded by stealth technology & lack of knowledge about their capabilities creating a very ambarrassing situation for us.

  • Shahbaz  On August 10, 2011 at 5:21 pm

    A good piece by Brig Dogar;will give comments in a couple of days

    Muhammad Shahbaz

  • Najma  On August 11, 2011 at 2:42 am

    Marvellous. Who would know better than a seasoned insider? Now how about getting this to thinking, reform-oriented decision-makers in the military.
    I have only one problem — about the allotment of plots/agricultural land to military retirees. Why should military personnel, a minority of the population, who haven’t handled the soil or done commercial work for their entire careers, get such land automatically, and not all civilians? Available land will soon run out and create another situation of haves and have-nots. But this is like saying military personnel are superior to other beings and therefore entitled to more privileges, which is not true. Without producers, especially wealth-creating agricultural and mineral production surplus, there would be no military. Why shouldn’t they buy land like any other citizen?
    – Najma Sadeque

  • Mohammad Chaudhry  On August 11, 2011 at 3:10 am

    Bravo Brig(R) Dogar, as one conscientious-minded retired army officer having clarity of vision,proffesional understanding,concern and commitment who has taken initiative to make your contribution for the challenge of the day as a true Pakistani. You’ve the guts and nerves to call a spade a spade,though your concept and a comprehensive plan that may be short of perfection and have scope for improvement and fine-tuning,it’s a bold step in the right direction.You not be awarded a medal or recognition in this world because of overwhelming control of vested interest and Machiavellian characters in our country at present but you’ll surely rewarded in the next world by God almighty for this effort for the good of 170 million hapless Pakistanis and men/women in forces themselves.
    Saleem Chaudhry

  • Freda Shah  On August 11, 2011 at 6:23 am

    This is a comprehensive report, based on one officer’s first-hand experiences. Other retired officers should also come forward with their observations and recommendations. The military hierarchy could benefit from the mellowed thinking of such highly experienced retirees.

    • Yasub Dogar  On August 11, 2011 at 6:52 am

      This is a comprehensive reply to all friends above:
      +Yes, cantts should be away from population centres & not enmeshed into them for security & other reasons, the military personnel should not become vulnerable to unhealthy tendencies existing in society to preclude Mehran Base incidents.
      +Agricultural land allotment etc. is already being phased out due to paucity of remaining land, basically virgin lands were alloted which no one else wanted to cultivate. Even in recent years much of Cholistan’s land was made cultvable by military personnel .
      +Normally minor changes keep changing in routine. however major changes need prime movers to change them. I think there is thinking in military circles too on the need of Reforms. how & when & how much will change, only time can tell us.

  • Munir Varraich  On August 11, 2011 at 8:45 am

    These discussions of restructuring the army have been going on within the armed forces circles at different levels, ever since after the defeat of 1971. However to bring about any structural changes within any army, there needs to be a harmony within the society. The tug of war between the generals and the politician, with their respective vested interests, needs to come to an end.

    MAV

  • Admiral Sirohey  On August 11, 2011 at 9:55 am

    Brig Y A Dogar has expressed his views on a very important and sensitive issue. The men in uniform were termed normally mean and clean. Their only business was to ever ready to defend the country. NOTHING ELSE. That task should be executed with minimum resources. A Committee of three star officers was constituted to devise such a military system. It worked on it for almost two years. That report was presented to the Government. There had been no change because the successive Governments did not have the courage to bring about the change as it affected the army. The Change is essential but can only be brought about by a competent and honest leadership. The example is set from the top. Only then no one would dare to stop the change. There soon shall be so much disparity that we shall not economically be able to defend the country with present system. We do have a deterrence but that has to remain that. There has to be other economical means to deter the enemy.

    However their basic needs must be provided for by the state and they should be held in high esteem.

    IAS

    • Yasub Dogar  On August 12, 2011 at 10:09 am

      Dear Sir,

      I am honoured to have been commented upon by you, With 2 brothers in the Pak Navy It was my privelidge to have recieved you in 1989 as Commander of the Siachin Sector.

      All militaries are status quo orianted & averse to any change even in the western world, Churchill had to entrust the devevlopment of the battle tank to the Royal Navy due to reluctance of Army generals to do so so. The reforms have been analyzed, researched & led from outside by think tanks & implemented by national leadership which in our case is not capable of doing so.

      Would it be possible to share the structural reforms that you had envisioned as the CJSC what was the reason for their nonimplementation..
      Sir thank you once again.

  • S U Turkman  On August 12, 2011 at 2:28 am

    Brigadier Dogar,
    Now I know, why they did not let you become a General. You talk too much sense and we had not gotten Pakistan to make any sense. We wanted Pakistan to get rid of our Goray Bosses so, we can loot and be as corrupt as we can be.

    • Brig Retd Farooq Hameed Khan  On August 12, 2011 at 6:08 am

      Brig Dogar , many years my senior enjoys respect for his professionalism and courage. This research paper is thought provoking. He has rightly commended Gen Ashfaq Pervez Kayani for making institutional changes as well as correcting the military mindset in the last four years as COAS.

      The Army has changed to a more well trained and combat oriented fighting machine. The change over to the combat camouflage dress, their fighting abilities/successes in FATA operations and readiness to sacrifice lives are proofs of their enhanced professionalism.

      The culture of welfare melas, meena bazaars and parties/musical evenings in Army messes and other non productive activities that we saw in our times is a thing of the past. The path towards austerity/ simple living has set in

      We must also not forget that at any given time the Army has around 10000 plus officers/men deployed in UN peace keeping missions around the world where they operate in combat risk and health hazard environments. 126 Pakistani peacekeepers( 10% of the total UN fatalities) have died so far.

      To improve the teeth to tail ratio as rightly highlighted by Brig Dogar, the Army had cut its strength by almost 55000 slots with almost 30 to 40% cuts in the permanent establishment of supporting/ logistic/ static establishments by end 2006 when i retired from GHQ. I was part of this restructuring program initiated by Gen Musharraf and implemented by then Lt Gen Tariq Majid( Chief of General Staff), through the Army Restructuring Division. It was aimed to reduce the extra fat in the organization over the years, despite facing a two front war scenario and massive internal security operations in FATA etc.

      The biggest colonial tradition of providing military jawans as ‘ batmen’ to officers and JCOs was actually done away with in Musharraf’s era. Around 30000 soldiers plus became available for military duties.

      Due to financial constraints the Army has also shelved the new GHQ project islamabad and diverted funds towards renovation of the century old colonial era old GHQ barracks as well as focus on better living conditions for its soldiers.

      Station /garrison messes or sports/recreational facilities in the cantonments are essential facilities for the officers life as in all other Armies. these are manned generally by civ staff under military supervision for obvious reasons. Central CSDs in cantonments , also open to civilians are essential welfare measures. for offrs/soldiers/ families.

      I agree with BrIg Dogar that reforms in the Armed forces must continue. this is an ongoing and continuous process.

      Brig Retd Farooq Hameed Khan

  • tanweer  On September 6, 2011 at 9:16 am

    I agree with BrIg Dogar that reforms in the Armed forces must continue. Pak Army needs to bring a paradigm shift in its culture and style of living. By using this forum, I just wanted to share that although we are not at the top speed but even than we are on the way. What else options do we have ? Army is bound to have its share by enforcing law and order situation in shopping malls and other commercial places because it is the army only that people trust and they feel secure so army has to rise for the people of Pakistan,its their primary job after all.

  • sajid  On September 6, 2011 at 5:11 pm

    army always needs modernization , but its not me , u , or any one else to decide what army should do or what army should not … those who are serving in army know better than us thats why they have been selected and tasked to do their job … being very straight forward if i had been able to be the part of army i would have been selected in ISSB … and same goes to everybody …. I just know one thing army is my passion though i was was rejected in ISSB

  • imran  On September 8, 2011 at 9:34 pm

    Pak Army has recently undergone restructuring and has shed away many vacancies. The pursuit of professionalism continues in Pak army which is evident from success in Swat and Bajaur. It is hoped that this positive trend in Army would continue

  • Kashif  On September 24, 2011 at 7:45 pm

    God bless Pak Army…aameen!

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